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[46] wily enemy ‘had a trap set somewhere’ for him,1 feared either to demonstrate or attack. His conduct was certainly feeble; and his marches and countermarches, made far from the enemy, were ridiculous. At Martinsburg his position was a false one, where, instead of threatening the enemy, the enemy threatened him. At length, when informed that the army in front of Washington was actually under way, he (July 15th) advanced his force from Martinsburg to Bunker's Hill, from which point he, on the 17th, fell off upon Charlestown, near Harper's Ferry, and Johnston was left free to move to form a junction with Beauregard! This was precisely what Johnston now found occasion to do. As will presently appear, McDowell's reconnoitring parties appeared in front of Bull Run on the 18th of July. On the same day a message reached Johnston from Beauregard: ‘If you wish to help me, now is the time.’ Johnston promptly availed himself of the opportunity to escape unmolested. Making a rapid flank march by way of Ashby's Gap, he took cars on the Manassas Gap Railroad at Piedmont, and joined Beauregard with his advance brigades on Saturday, the 20th. What part they played in the coming battle will presently appear.

General McDowell moved his army from the banks of the Potomac on the afternoon of July 16th. The movable column consisted of four divisions—the First Division, under General Tyler; the Second, under General Hunter; the Third, under General Heintzelman; the Fifth, under Colonel Miles. The Fourth Division, under General Runyon, was left in the works on the south bank of the Potomac. These divisions made an

1 Patterson: Narrative of the Campaign in the Valley of the Shenandoah, p. 57.

General Johnston, in conversation with the writer touching this point, made a ludicrous comment on Patterson's statement of his numbers. On my mentioning to him that Patterson, in a Narrative recently published, had put down the Confederate strength at forty thousand, General Johnston laughingly exclaimed: ‘Why, if he had really thought that I had forty thousand, or half that number, sooner than have crossed the Potomac he would have thrown himself headlong into it.’

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