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[103] power and European suffering were alike full, at a moment when all hope of relief seemed to have fled from the Continent, and Prussia herself to have been marked out as the peculiar object of French vengeance,—at this moment, when the rest of Germany lay in abject subjection, the ministry of Prussia conceived and announced the determination of making up in moral strength what they had lost in physical. From that moment the character of Prussia began to change. The means were no sooner wanted than they were found. More freedom was gradually given to the lower classes; more schools were established for their instruction; societies were formed under the direction of the government whose object was to promote industry, order, and economy among the people; and finally the king founded a new university at Berlin, from which a free spirit has gone forth that has wrought like a fever through all Germany. In short, all the talents, influence, and activity which the councils of the king could command, were directly applied to repress luxury, to promote industry, and to diffuse information among the people, and thus give a new moral character to the whole nation.

Such designs were suited to the spirit of the times, and they therefore succeeded beyond the hopes of those who first conceived them. It was in this way that Prussia was gradually and systematically prepared for emancipation, and enabled to act with more vigor and success when that moment arrived. The government now find this spirit dangerous. They have used it as long as it suited their purposes, and would now gladly suppress it. The people, however, who have thus been taught freer notions than they had before known, and who above all feel that they have emancipated themselves rather than been emancipated by the government, are not willing to return to their original subjection. In consequence of this, the spirit of the government and the spirit of the people are now decidedly at variance, and time must determine which will prevail.

To Mrs. E. Ticknor.

Gottingen, July 21, 1816.
. . . . In my own situation I know not that any change has taken place since I last wrote to you, excepting in our dinner society at old Judge Zacharia's. Madame Blumenbach and her daughter have gone to the baths at Ems for their health and amusement; and as the knight does not choose to eat his dinner quite alone, he dines with us. His unwearied and inexhaustible gayety of spirits, and his endless

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