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[90] the sword. The object is not literary, but strictly municipal, and the whole advantage is the irresistible influence which the combination can give to its decisions, either against a student or a citizen. At Gottingen, there have been, time out of mind, seven of these societies,—according to the seven principal States from which the students come,—as the Hanoverians, the Prussians, the Brunswickers, etc. They are in defiance of the laws of the University, and have often been broken up by the government, but have always reappeared under new names. Sometimes they have been called ‘Orders,’ sometimes ‘Bonds of Virtue,’ sometimes ‘Clubs of Honor,’ etc. The last were called ‘Landsmannschafts,’ or ‘Associations of Countrymen.’ Their object was twofold: to settle quarrels among their members, and to defend themselves against all impositions of the citizens. But the great power their combination gave them proved tyranny in injudicious hands, and the members were obliged to fight duels where no offence was really given, and the citizens were punished where no injustice or fraud had been practised. They had but two modes of proceeding, and both were sufficiently summary. If one member was offended with another, his society compelled him to fight a duel, appointed the seconds and the witnesses, and saw that satisfaction was properly given. To be sure, these duels hardly deserve so imposing a name, for they were fought with such weapons and such armor that they were seldom bloody and could never be fatal; but still their number was so considerable that they were absolutely a nuisance, for every slight offence was settled by them.

This was the first mode; the second was when a member offended the club, or a citizen a member, and then the punishment was by ‘verschuss,’ or non-intercourse. If, for instance, a tradesman had cheated a student, if his landlord had treated him unkindly, or anybody with whom he had connection had offended him, he complained to his club. If they found the complaint supported and sufficient, the offender was put into ‘verschuss,’—that is, no student was allowed to have anything to do with him. If he was a shopkeeper, his custom was gone; if he was a restaurateur, nobody would have his dinner from him, any more than if he sent out poison; and if he let rooms, nobody would take lodgings of him. In short, whatever might be the occupation of the offender, it was gone. Instances of this sort of punishment are not at all rare. Last year, a student, for having spoken disrespectfully of the ‘Landsmannschaft,’ was put under the ban of the Empire, and, after braving the whole University some weeks, and its marked contempt, went to Leipsic, but found himself received

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