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[108] liberty has for its corner-stone the Freedom of the Will, and the will is free only when the judgment wholly controls the appetite.1 On such a base even a democracy may rest secure, and on such alone.

Rome was always the central point of Dante's speculation. A shadow of her old sovereignty was still left her in the primacy of the Church, to which unity of faith was essential. He accordingly has no sympathy with heretics of whatever kind. He puts the ex-troubadour Bishop of Marseilles, chief instigator of the horrors of Provence, in paradise.2 The Church is infallible in spiritual matters, but this is an affair of outward discipline merely, and means the Church as a form of polity. Unity was Dante's leading doctrine, and therefore he puts Mahomet among the schismatics, not because he divided the Church, but the faith.3 Dante's Church was of this world, but he surely believed in another and spiritual one. It has been questioned whether he was orthodox or not. There can be no doubt of it so far as outward assent and conformity are concerned, which he would practice himself and enforce upon others as the first postulate of order, the prerequisite for all happiness in this life. In regard to the Visible Church he was a reformer, but no revolutionist; it is sheer ignorance to speak of him as if there were anything new or exceptional in his denunciation of the corruptions of the clergy. They were the commonplaces of the age, nor were they confined to laymen.4 To the absolute authority of the Church Dante admitted some exceptions. He denies that the supreme Pontiff has the unlimited

1 De Monarchia, Lib. I. § 14.

2 Paradiso, IX.

3 Inferno, XXXVIII.; Purgatorio, XXXII.

4 See the poems of Walter Mapes (who was Archdeacon of Oxford); the ‘Bible Guiot,’ and the ‘Bible au seignor de Berze,’ Barbazan and Meon, il

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