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[231] party in litigation—‘pay the costs of the suit’ It might be difficult for these critics to find an example in Europe where any victor nation voluntarily paid its own costs, and also paid indemnity to the vanquished.

A late example of European methods is furnished in the terms imposed by Germany on vanquished France— $1,000,000,000 indemnity. Had the United States imposed on Mexico the accustomed indemnity, possibly we might have escaped criticism by pleading European precedent The United States, however, has a way of chalking out her own paths. She dealt with prostrate Mexico according to a novel rule among victors. She offered terms after victory more liberal than any she had proposed before the war. She took measures to heal the wounded pride of her vanquished foe. She withdrew her armies from Mexican territory. She required no indemnity. She paid her own costs of war. She released to Mexico the acknowledged indebtedness of $3,250,000, partly in default of which the war was fought. She paid Mexico $15,000,000 for the territory acquired, which was the same price paid for Louisiana.

The United States was certainly in a position to despoil Mexico of her territory, or even to subvert her independence. Yet such was not the purpose of the victor. (Donaldson's Public Domain, pp. 126-134, and Arts. XIII, XIV and XV of the Treaty.) The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was concluded February 2, 1848, between Nicholas P. Trist, on the part of the United States, and Don Luis Gonzaga Cuevas, Don Bernardo Couto and Don Miguel Atristain, on the part of Mexico. President Polk submitted it to the Senate, February 23, recommending amendments. It was amended by the Senate, and ratified as amended, March 10, by a vote of 39 to 14. Hon. Ambrose H. Sevier, of Arkansas, and Hon. Nathaniel Clifford, as envoys extraordinary and ministers plenipotentiary, carried the ratification of the amended treaty to Mexico with full powers. The treaty, with a protocol

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