Marylanders in the military and naval service of the Confederate States.it is generally estimated in Maryland that twenty thousand men from that State served in the armies of the Confederacy. There are no data by which an approximate estimate can be made of the number furnished, but the above conjecture is reasonable and probable. It is certain that there was no neighborhood in Maryland from Mason and Dixon's line to the seashore, from which all the young men of the better class did not go to military service in Virginia, and an examination now will show Maryland Confederate soldiers still living all over the State. Frederick county, which was a Union stronghold, shows a list of over one thousand Confederates. The Marylanders were scattered throughout the armies of the Confederacy. In Virginia, in Georgia, in Mississippi, in Arkansas, they were found serving in the ranks of their regiments, or as commissioned officers from captain to brigadier-general. A large percentage, the majority, of the officers in the army and navy of the United States from Maryland, resigned their commissions, and entered the service of the Confederacy.
Captain Franklin Buchanan, United States navy, became Admiral Buchanan in the Confederate service. He commanded the iron-clad Virginia when he sank in Hampton Roads the Congress and the Cumberland,--two of the best men-of-war in the navy of the United States, and was prevented from sinking all transports and gunboats in that anchorage only by the accidental and timely arrival of the Monitor, a newly invented ironclad, constructed  by Ericsson. Admiral Buchanan was wounded at Hampton Roads. As soon as he again reported for duty, he was assigned to the command of Mobile harbor, with all the vessels and gunboats there. He defended his post with gallantry and skill the most distinguished, against the Federal fleet under Admiral Farragut, until he was wounded and taken prisoner in August, 1864.
Captain Raphael Semmes served in the United States navy with distinction during the Mexican war, and was aide to General Worth. In 1861 he resigned and was commissioned captain in the navy of the Confederate States. Assigned to command the Sumter he performed gallant and efficient service. In August, 1862, he took command of the Confederate man-of-war Alabama. He sunk the Hatteras off Galveston, January, 1863, after a brief action, and thereafter his achievements and exploits make a record for brilliancy and efficiency unequaled in the annals of war upon the high seas, in the history of the world. He captured and ransomed or burned eighty-nine merchant vessels bearing the United States flag, and literally obliterated the commerce of the United States from the high seas. He pervaded the Atlantic and the Indian oceans. He carried the Confederate battle-flag in the face of four continents, and surrendered it with a blaze of glory that will glow as long as chivalry shall nerve the hearts of men, or the story of gallant deeds stir the pulses of the human race.
Commodore George Nichols Hollins was born at Baltimore, September 20, 1799. He entered the navy of the United States as midshipman in 1814, served on the Erie in her attempt to break the British blockade of Chesapeake bay, and was subsequently transferred to the President, where he served under Stephen Decatur until captured at Bermuda, where he was held until peace was established. His career thus gallantly begun, continued  to be a conspicuous one. In the Algerian war of 1815 he served under Decatur with such merit as to be presented a sword in recognition of his gallantry. Subsequently he was on duty upon the Guerriere, Columbus, Franklin, and Washington, and commanded an East India merchantman for a time. He was promoted lieutenant in 1828, commander in 1841, and captain U. S. N. in 1855. In the latter year he bombarded Graytown in the interests of American residents. In 1861 Captain Hollins resigned his commission, upon which the war department refused to accept the resignation and ordered his arrest. But he eluded the effort made to this end, and in March, 1861, was at Montgomery, then the Confederate capital, where he met Semmes, Tattnall, Brent, and many other naval officers, for consultation with the committees of the Confederate Congress on the means to provide a navy for the new government. Hollins became a commander in the navy of the Confederate States, was assigned to very important duties, and quickly attracted attention by his clever capture, on June 29, 1861, of the steamer St. Nicholas in the Potomac river. On July 10th the naval defenses of the James river were placed under his command, and on July 31st he was put in charge of the naval station at New Orleans, where he defeated the Federal blockading squadron in the following October. Being appointed flag-officer, in December he took a fleet up the Mississippi river to assist in the defense of the works at Columbus, Ky. In April, 1862, he was called back to New Orleans by the appearance of the enemy in force, but before the fall of the city he was appointed to the court of inquiry on the destruction of the Virginia. After the war he resided at Baltimore, and died there January 18, 1878.
Major-General Arnold Elzey was descended from some of the best blood of Maryland, his ancestry being among its earliest and most prominent settlers. His father, Col.  Arnold Elzey Jones, was, in his day, very prominent in the politics of Maryland, having several times represented Somerset county in the State legislature. His mother, Anne Wilson Jackson, of a wealthy Maryland family, was a lady of great culture and refinement. General Elzey was born December 18, 1816, at Elmwood, the residence of his parents, on the Manokin river, in Somerset county. He was graduated at West Point in 1837, and commissioned lieutenant of artillery in the United States army. Finding a number of officers in the army bearing his paternal name, he adopted that of his paternal grandmother, Elzey, by which he was subsequently known. As an artillery officer he served with credit during the Seminole outbreak in Florida, and when war was declared between the, United States and Mexico, he was in command of a battery at Brownsville, Tex., where he had the honor of firing the first gun of the war. From this opening gun, until the surrender of the City of Mexico, he was with the armies of Taylor and Scott, participating in nearly every battle, and was twice brevetted for gallant and meritorious conduct on the field. In 1860, with the rank of captain of artillery, he was in command of the United States arsenal at Augusta, Ga., which he surrendered with the honors of war upon the demand of superior forces soon after the fall of Fort Sumter. He then conducted his command to Washington, after which he resigned his commission and made his way to Richmond, where he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel in the Confederate service. At the first battle of Manassas, Elzey, then ranking as senior colonel in Kirby Smith's bride, had the honor, after General Smith was wounded, of leading the successful charge, on the afternoon of the day's hard fighting, which turned the tide of battle, broke the Federal forces, and ended in a rout of the almost victorious army of McDowell. For this gallant service he was complimented by General Beauregard, who styled him ‘the Blucher of the field,’  and was promoted brigadier-general on the field by President Davis, who had witnessed the gallant action. In command of a brigade General Elzey was with Stonewall Jackson all through his celebrated Valley campaign of 1862, and the opening of the Seven Days fighting before Richmond. At the battle of Port Republic he was slightly wounded in the leg, and his horse shot under him, and in the engagement at Cold Harbor he was desperately wounded, a minie ball entering on the right side of his face just above the mouth and passing transversely entirely through his head and out behind his left ear. This injury prevented his further service in the field, but after his almost miraculous recovery he was promoted major-general and put in command of the department of Richmond, where he continued until the fall of 1864. He then joined General Hood as chief of artillery of the army of Tennessee, and participated in the operations against Sherman's line of communication. After the end of the war, being permitted to return to Maryland, he retired with his wife, and only son then living, to a small farm in Anne Arundel county. Here this intrepid soldier and modest unassuming gentleman passed the remainder of his days, honored for his manly virtues, and beloved for his gentle qualities. He died February 21, 1870, while on a visit to Dr. Frank Donaldson, at Baltimore. His wife, to whom he was married in 1845, then Miss Ellen Irwin, a ruling belle of Baltimore society, still survives him.
Major-General Isaac Ridgeway Trimble was born in Culpeper county, Virginia, May 15, 1802. He was graduated at the national military academy in 1822, and was detailed to survey the military road from Washington to the Ohio river, having won distinction at West Point in engineering. In 1832 he resigned from the army, and becoming chief engineer of the Baltimore and Susquehanna railroad, completed that line to York, Pa, in 1837.  He was subsequently chief engineer of the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore and the Boston & Providence railroads, and in 1860 was engaged in large railroad operations in the West Indies. During April, 1861, he was in command of the Baltimore organizations for the defense of the city from the Federal troops. He entered the service of Virginia, as colonel of engineers, in May, 1861, and was assigned by General Lee to the duty of constructing the defenses of Norfolk. In August he was commissioned brigadier-general in the Confederate provisional army, and ordered to report to General Johnston, by whom he was put in command of a brigade at Evansport, with the duty of erecting batteries and blockading the river against Federal shipping. Subsequently he was assigned to the command of a brigade of Ewell's division, which he accompanied to the support of Jackson in the Valley campaign of 1862 In this famous series of glorious battles and brilliant maneuvers he bore a conspicuous part, and at Cross Keys was particularly distinguished, where in command of two brigades, he repulsed the attack of Fremont, and being reinforced, in turn advanced and routed the enemy. During the Seven Days battles before Richmond, his brigade continued to be distinguished, particularly at Cold Harbor, where Trimble led in person a successful charge against the Federal defenses. Moving with Jackson's command against Pope, he fought his men with gallantry at Slaughter's Mountain; and at the time when Jackson lay in the enemy's rear at Bristoe Station, he was roused on the night of August 27th to receive notice that he could if he chose, capture Manassas Junction before morning. With five hundred men, already weary, he marched at once, and by midnight had crushed the Federal resistance at the point of the bayonet, and without the loss of a man killed, captured three hundred prisoners, eight guns and the immense Federal stores. Jackson at once wrote to him, ‘I congratulate you on the great success which  God has given you. You deserve promotion to major-general,’ and in his official report he wrote: ‘I regard the capture of Manassas Junction Station at night, after a march of thirty-four miles without food, as the most brilliant achievement that has come under my notice during the war.’ In the battle of the 28th before Groveton, he fought on the extreme left, and during the severe battle of the 29th he was seriously wounded. Promoted major-general in January, 1863, he was given the honorable assignment of command of Jackson's old division. In June, 1863, Lee offered him command of the valley of Virginia, to form the left wing of the army, with headquarters at Staunton, and orders to form into brigades ‘under you all the Maryland troops—a measure I have much at heart.’ During the grapple of the contending armies at Gettysburg, Pender fell on the first day, and General Trimble was assigned to the command of his division of A. P. Hill's corps. This division he led in co-operation with Pickett in the famous attack against the Federal center on July 3d, and being so severely wounded as to cause the loss of a leg, fell into the hands of the enemy. He was held as a prisoner of war at Johnson's Island and Fort Warren, despite earnest efforts made for his release, until February, 1865, when two Federal major-generals, Crook and Kelly, were finally received in exchange. He hastened to join General Lee, but upon reaching Lynchburg found that the army had been surrendered. As the leader selected by Lee under whom the Confederate soldiers of Maryland were to have been organized, General Trimble holds a position of particular prominence in the military history of his adopted State. His chivalrous character, great personal bravery, and capacity for generalship, were proved on many occasions. It may be said with the hearty approval of all of Maryland's brave soldiers that among them, as Gen. Bradley Johnson says, he performed the most distinguished service, obtained the highest rank  and won the greatest fame.” After the close of hostilities he made his home at Baltimore until his death, which occurred January 2, 1888. Major-General Mansfield Lovell was born at Washington, D. C., October 20, 1822. He was the son of Dr. Joseph Lovell, surgeon-general of the United States army in 1818, and grandson of a member of the Continental Congress. Receiving an appointment in youth to the United States military academy at West Point, he was graduated there in 1842, with the distinction of being ninth in grade in a class which included some afterward distinguished generals. He received a lieutenancy in the Fourth artillery, which joined General Taylor's army in Texas, in 1845. He was wounded at Monterey in 1846, was appointed aide to General Quitman, went to Vera Cruz and was in the campaign from that place to the City of Mexico, in the assault upon which he was wounded at Belasco gate. He was brevetted captain for bravery at Chapultepec. After the Mexican war he commanded a battery of his regiment for two years, served in garrisons in the South and West, and finally in New York, where he resigned September 18, 1854, having married Emily M., daughter of Colonel Plympton, U. S. A. At New York he was a member of, and drilled the Old City Guard, and was deputy street commissioner from 1858 until 1861, when he went South. Tendering his services to the Confederate government, he was commissioned brigadiergen-eral and in October, 1861, was promoted major-general and assigned to the command of Department No. 1, with headquarters at New Orleans. On account of the inadequacy of his infantry force in the city he was compelled to evacuate when the Federal fleet passed the forts and came up the river. He retired to Vicksburg, was superseded by General Van Dorn, was second in command at Corinth, and commanded the rear guard in the subsequent  retreat. A court of inquiry relieved him of blame for the surrender of New Orleans, and Gen. J. E. Johnston in 1864 proposed to give him command of a corps, but he was not restored to the field by the government. After the war he resided in New York City, engaged in civil engineering, until his death in June, 1884.
Lloyd Tilghman, brigadier-general in the Confederate States army, was born in Talbot county, Maryland, in 1816. He was of a distinguished colonial family, being the great-grandson of Matthew Tilghman, who was president of the revolutionary conventions of Maryland, member of the legislature and Continental Congress, head of the council of safety, and known in his old age as the Patriarch of Maryland. A daughter of this ancestor married Col. Tench Tilghman, aide-de-camp to General Washington. Lloyd Tilghman was graduated at the United States military academy in 1836, and was commissioned second-lieutenant in the First Dragoons. September 30, 1836, he resigned and took up the profession of civil engineering, becoming division engineer of the Baltimore & Susquehanna railroad in 1836-37; of the Norfolk & Wilmington canal in 1837-38; of the Eastern Shore railroad of Maryland in 1838-39; and of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad in 1839-40. He served in the war with Mexico as volunteer aide to General Twiggs in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, and was captain of the Maryland and District of Columbia battalion of volunteers in 1847-48. He then engaged as principal assistant engineer of the Panama division of the Isthmus railroad, and was engineer on Southern railroads until 1859. He joined the army of the Confederate States in 1861, and was commissioned brigadier-general. In February, 1862, he was charged with the inspection of Fort Henry, one of the most important defenses on the Tennessee river, and of the neighboring Fort Donelson. He reported defects in the location of Fort Henry,  built before he took charge, which could not be remedied because of the immediate pressure of the enemy. On the 6th of February the fort was attacked by General Grant with a force of 12,000 men, aided by General Smith with a smaller body, and seven gun-boats with an armament of 54 guns. Tilghman had a grand total of 2,600 men not well armed, and the eleven guns of the fort. He resolved to retire his infantry, field artillery and cavalry toward Fort Donelson, retaining a small force with the siege guns to make a stubborn fight. The retreat was effected, notwithstanding the enemy was pushing his infantry to within a half mile of the advance work, and the gun-boat flotilla had opened fire. The fort returned the fire with spirit and effect, disabling one of the gun-boats, but unfortunately losing a 24-pounder rifled gun by bursting, and a Columbiad by the closing of the vent. The enemy's entire force became engaged in an advance which Tilghman saw must become successful, especially since at one o'clock only four guns remained serviceable, and the men were broken down with fatigue. An embarrassing question now presented itself as to his duty, whether to leave his small band of heroic defenders in the fort to be surrendered and join his main command en route to Fort Donelson, or remain and share the fate of the garrison. Colonel Heiman, in command of the escaping force, had returned to the fort for final orders, and General Tilghman could have left with him. But the men at the guns entreated him to stay, and the effect of his absence would have been the immediate fall of the fort, which he desired to postpone to the last moment. His decision was made. Colonel Heiman was directed to return to the main body, and General Tilghman took the place of an exhausted gunner and worked a 32-pounder with good effect. Soon afterward the enemy succeeded in breaching the fort, but resistance was continued for over to hours before the white flag was hoisted, under which an honorable surrender was  made of 12 officers, 66 effective men and 16 others in hospital. In this gallant fight of a day he lost but five killed and sixteen disabled, and the entire command outside the fort was saved by his prolonged and heroic resistance. General Tilghman was a prisoner of war until his exchange in the fall of 1862, when he rejoined the army of the West, then in north Mississippi, and was put in command of the First brigade of Loring's division. At the battle of Corinth, Miss., he took a prominent part. During the retreat from Holly Springs to Grenada, Tilghman's brigade was assigned the responsible position of rear guard, and repeatedly gave battle to and held in check the enemy. Between four and five o'clock of the evening of May 16, 1863, he was killed on the battle-field of Champion's Hill. He was in command of his brigade, consisting of the Fifteenth and Twenty-second Mississippi regiments, First Louisiana, and Rayburn's and McLendon's batteries, on the extreme right of the line. They received the first fire of that battle, but the fight drifted to the left until after midday, when the enemy advanced in force against Loring's division, and after their first repulse threw forward a line of sharpshooters which, aided by artillery, maintained the action. These sharpshooters occupied a row of plantation cabins near the Confederate line, and were doing destructive work, when General Tilghman directed a gun to be trained upon them. He dismounted to give directions for sighting the piece, when a shell from the enemy exploded about fifty feet to the front, and a fragment tore through his body. He died very soon after receiving this terrible wound, and his body was carried to the rear, and subsequently interred at Vicksburg, escorted by his personal staff and his son, Lloyd Tilghman, Jr.
Brigadier-General Charles S. Winder was born in Maryland in 1829. He was graduated at West Point in 1850, and on advancement from second to first-lieutenant  of infantry, U. S. A., was ordered to the Pacific coast. The steamer San Francisco, on which the troops took passage, encountered a hurricane off the Atlantic coast, and for several weeks was reported lost. Lieutenant Winder and his men were, however, rescued and carried to Liverpool. For his coolness and devotion on this occasion he was promoted to captain of the Ninth regiment, March 3, 1855, being, it is believed, the youngest captain in the army. Finally reaching the Pacific coast he went into Washington Territory in 1856, and was engaged in the desperate combat of To-hots-nim-me, with the Columbia river Indians, and other engagements in 1856 and 1858 in the Spokane country, under the command of Steptoe and Wright. Early in 1861 he resigned his commission, and was commissioned, to date from March 16th, major of artillery in the Confederate army. He served at Charleston during the reduction of Fort Sumter, and was in command of the South Carolina arsenal until commissioned colonel of the Sixth regiment, South Carolina infantry, July 8, 1861. He hurried with his command to Manassas, but reached the battle ground at the close of the fight. Promoted brigadier-general in March, 1862, he was assigned to command the Fourth brigade in Hill's division, but on the occurrence of a vacancy was given command of the ‘Stonewall brigade,’ in Jackson's division, with which he served in the Valley campaign of 1862. He led the advance and opened the battle of Port Republic and in the campaign on the Chickahominy led his brigade in the desperate and memorable charge which broke the Federal lines at Cold Harbor or Gaines' Mill. In his report of that battle General Jackson describes the forward movement of the brigade, through the swamp, meeting at that point the Hampton Legion, First Maryland, Twelfth Alabama, Fifty-second Virginia and Thirty-eighth Georgia, which were formed on General Winder's line. ‘Thus formed, they moved forward under the lead of that gallant officer, whose conduct  here was marked by the coolness and courage which distinguished him on the battle-fields of the valley.’ In the subsequent advance against Pope he commanded the division lately under the leadership of Jackson, who was in command of the corps. He was, however, not destined to see the second overwhelming defeat of the Federal army on the historic field of Manassas. While in command of Jackson's division, on August 9, 1862, and directing the movements of his batteries in the terrific artillery duel of the battle of Cedar Mountain, he was given a mortal wound by a shell, and died in a few hours, at the age of thirty-three. Gen. Stonewall Jackson said in his report, ‘It is difficult within the proper reserve of an official report to do justice to the merits of this accomplished officer. Richly endowed with those qualities of mind and person which fit an officer for command, and which attract the admiration and excite the enthusiasm of troops, he was rapidly rising to the front rank of his profession, and his loss has been severely felt.’ General Lee also wrote, in his official report: ‘I can add nothing to the well-deserved tribute paid to the courage, capacity, and conspicuous merit of this lamented officer by General Jackson, in whose brilliant campaigns in the valley and on the Chickahominy he bore a distinguished part.’
Brigadier-General George H. Steuart was born at Baltimore, August 24, 1828, and was graduated at the United States military academy in 1848, with a lieutenancy in the Second Dragoons. He served on frontier duty in the United States army; on the march through Texas to Austin in 1848-49, and remained on duty at various garrisons in Texas until 1855, when he was promoted first-lieutenant First cavalry, March 3d, and captain December 20th. Subsequently he was engaged in garrison duty in Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado, in the Cheyenne expedition of 1856, the Utah expedition of  1848, and the Comanche expedition of 1860. Immediately after April 19, 1861, he resigned his commission, and going to Richmond, was commissioned captain of cavalry in the regular army of the Confederate States. Upon the formation of the First regiment, Maryland infantry, he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of that command, and by special good conduct won the commendation of Gen. J. E. Johnston in orders. He was with the regiment under Colonel Elzey during its distinguished service at the first battle of Manassas, and at the promotion of Elzey, Steuart was commissioned colonel. In March, 1862, he was promoted brigadiergen-eral, and given command of a brigade in Ewell's division, consisting of the Forty-fourth, Fifty-second and Fifty-eighth Virginia regiments, to which the First Maryland was added, which he led during Jackson's campaign in the valley, receiving a severe wound at Cross Keys, which disabled him for some time. In the Pennsylvania campaign he commanded a brigade consisting of the Second Maryland, the First and Third North Carolina, and the Tenth, Twenty-third and Thirtysev-enth Virginia regiments, in Johnson's division of Ewell's corps, and was distinguished in the assault on Culp's Hill. In the first of the fighting at the Wilderness in 1864, he is found pushing in with his brigade after the repulse of Jones to meet the Federal attack, and continuing in the struggle until the 12th of May, fatal to his division, which held the salient at Spottsylvania, known as the bloody angle, and was overwhelmed on that date by the early morning attack of Hancock. General Steuart was among the prisoners taken by the Federals, and was one of those sent to Hilton Head to be placed under fire of the Confederate batteries. Being exchanged he returned to the army on the Petersburg and Richmond lines and was assigned to command the First brigade of Pickett's division, consisting of the Ninth, Fourteenth, Thirty-eighth, Fifty-third and Fifty-seventh  Virginia regiments. With this brigade he fought at the center of Pickett's line at Five Forks, on the day preceding the evacuation of Richmond. Since the war General Steuart has resided upon his farm in Anne Arundel county, Maryland. He is a member of the Army and Navy society, and since the formation of the Maryland division of the United Confederate Veterans, has served as its commander-in-chief.
Brigadier-General Henry Little, a MarylanderBrigadier-General Henry Little, a Marylander who served with distinction in the Western armies of the Confederacy, was born at Baltimore, March 19, 1817, the son of Peter Little, who served eighteen years in Congress as a representative of Maryland, and was colonel of the Thirty-eighth United States infantry 1813 to 1815. He was graduated at West Point in 1839 and appointed second-lieutenant of the Fifth infantry, U. S. A.; was promoted to first-lieutenant in 1845, and taking part in the Mexican war was brevetted captain September, 1846, for gallant conduct at Monterey. In 1847 he was commissioned captain in the Seventh infantry. Early in 1861 he resigned to enter the service of the Confederate States, and was commissioned major. Subsequently he was promoted colonel and appointed adjutant-general on the staff of General Price, commanding the forces in Missouri. He was put in command of one of the brigades organized by Price in the fall of 1861, and at the battle of Pea Ridge was distinguished in the action of the right wing before Elkhorn Tavern, where the Federals were defeated on the first day. Especial commendation was bestowed upon him in the reports of his commanding officers; he was promoted to brigadier-general April 16th, and General Van Dorn soon afterward wrote to Beauregard, ‘I want Little as major-general.’ General Little commanded the rear-guard on the retreat from Elkhorn Tavern, and soon afterward, when the army of the West was called to the aid of Albert Sidney Johnston,  he embarked with his brigade for Memphis just as Beauregard was bringing Johnston's army back from Shiloh. Leading the advance of Price's division, he proceeded east of the Mississippi, and joined Beauregard at Corinth. Subsequently when Price was assigned to command the army of the West, with headquarters at Tupelo, Miss., he was given Price's old division, the First of the army. At the grand review previous to the movement in August toward Corinth, as his division passed before General Bragg, the latter turned to Little and said, ‘You had the reputation of having one of the finest companies in the old army. General, this is certainly as fine a division as I have ever seen.’ He met the enemy under Rosecrans at Iuka, Miss., September 19, 1862, and the resulting battle was fought solely by his division. The Confederates were victorious, but while in the thickest of the fight Little was killed instantly by a minie ball which crashed through his forehead. He was buried that night by torchlight, and on the morrow the gloom among the troops caused by his death was one of the main causes for the abandonment of the field. Gen. Sterling Price, in reporting his death, paid him this touching and well-deserved tribute: ‘It will be seen that our success was obtained at the sacrifice of many a brave officer and soldier. Chief among them was Brig.-Gen. Henry Little, commanding the first division of the army. Than this brave Marylander no one could have fallen more dear to me, or whose memory should be more fondly cherished by his countrymen. No more skillful officer or more devout patriot has drawn his sword in this war of independence. He died in the day of his greatest usefulness, lamented by his friends, by the brigade of his love, by the division he so ably commanded, and by the army of the West, of which he had from the beginning been one of the chief ornaments.’
 Brigadier-General James J. Archer was born in Harford county, Maryland, of a distinguished family which has contributed brave soldiers to American battles. He was a graduate of the United States military academy, class of 1826, the class of Albert Sidney Johnston and E. Kirby Smith, and was assigned to the Third infantry. After serving on frontier duty in the West he was promoted first-lieutenant in October, 1833. March 31, 1834, he resigned and was engaged in business as a lumber merchant at Havre-de-Grace, Md., until 1847, and from that date until 1861 as a planter at San Patricio, Tex. He was commissioned a captain in the regular army of the Confederate States March 16, 1861, and soon afterward with the rank of colonel of the Fifth Texas regiment, was in command of the Texas brigade at the Evansport batteries. In May as acting brigadiergen-eral he was on duty at West Point, Va., and after the battle of Seven Pines he was promoted brigadier-general and assigned to the command of a brigade in A. P. Hill's division, consisting mainly of Tennessee and Alabama regiments. Under his gallant leadership Archer's brigade soon rose to prominence in the famous ‘light division’ and won laurels through all the hard fighting which followed. On June 26th in the battle of Mechanicsville, he advanced along the Bethesda road and made a desperate attack upon the Federal position with such valor that the losses of the attack fell principally upon his brigade. Following the retreating enemy he was again engaged with distinction at Gaines' Mill. With Jackson's command in the campaign of Manassas which followed, he was in action at Cedar Mountain, August 9th, Manassas Junction, August 16th, and in the battles of Manassas, August 28, 29 and 30. On the 29th, according to General Lee's report, General Archer ‘firmly held his ground against every attack.’ He was subsequently in action at Ox Hill, during the Maryland campaign took part in the capture of Harper's Ferry and the battle of  Sharpsburg, and the encounter of Shepherdstown, and in the following December was in the heat of the fighting at Fredericksburg. He participated in the flank movement and hard fighting of Jackson's corps at Chancellorsville. At Gettysburg, Hill having been promoted to command of corps, General Archer's brigade was in the division commanded by Gen. Henry Heth, which led in the Confederate advance on Gettysburg, Archer's command on the right of division line. The first shot of this memorable struggle was fired by Archer's brigade, and the first Confederate who fell was a private of one of his Tennessee regiments. The brigade occupied Mc-Pherson's wood, against which the Federal troops were promptly hurled under the leadership of Major-General Reynolds himself. In the fight which followed Reynolds was killed, and Archer was wounded and with many of his command fell into the hands of the enemy. The service lost at this time, as General Early well expressed it, a ‘most gallant and meritorious officer.’ In the summer of 1864, he was one of the six hundred Confederate officers who were sent from Fort Delaware to be placed under fire at Morris Island. Subsequently exchanged, he was assigned on August 19, 1864, to the command of his brigade and Walker's, temporarily united, of Heth's division. But in a few weeks the effects of his wounds and the hardships of imprisonment disabled him for active duty, and caused his death October 24, 1864.
Brigadier-General William W. Mackall, native of Cecil county, Maryland, was distinguished in various capacities in the Confederate service in the Western States. He was graduated at the United States military academy in 1837, a class-mate of General Bragg, and was assigned to the First artillery as second lieutenant. In the Seminole war he gained promotion to first lieutenant, and was severely wounded in an ambush at New Inlet in February, 1839. He served at Plattsburg, N. Y.,  during the Canada border disturbances in 1840, and on the Maine frontier in 1841-42. In the Mexican war he gained the brevet of captain by gallant service at Monterey, and of major for his record at Contreras and Churubusco. He served as adjutant-general on the staff of Generals Butler and Worth in 1846-48, and subsequently as adjutant-general of the Western division and the Third military department. After two years as treasurer of the Soldiers' Home, he made a tour of inspection of the Florida and Gulf posts, and in 1853 became adjutant-general of the Eastern division, and in 1856 of the department of the Pacific. In May, 1861, he declined promotion to lieutenant-colonel of staff, and then resigned, to offer his services to the Confederate States. He was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, and became adjutant-general on the staff of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston. He was promoted brigadier-general early in 1862, and was assigned by General Johnston to the command of the Confederate forces at Madrid Bend and Island No.10, where he was captured, with a large number of men, by the Federal army under Pope, on April 8th. He was exchanged later in the season, and General Beauregard, who had written to AdjutantGen-eral Cooper that he considered ‘the services of Mackall as a division commander indispensable at this critical juncture,’ was able to send word to Mackall under date of August 22d, ‘I am happy to hear of your safe return to the Confederacy, and hope you will soon receive a command commensurate with your merit.’ Gen. Samuel Jones, commanding the department of Tennessee, asked that General Mackall be assigned to that department to command a brigade, and a special order was issued accordingly. In December following he was given command of the district of the Gulf, and in February, 1863, being succeeded by General Buckner, he took charge of the Western division of that district. In April, 1863, he was appointed chief-of-staff by Gen. Braxton Bragg, with  whom he rendered important services during the campaigns of that year until relieved at his own request, after the battle of Chickamauga. In his general order announcing this event, General Bragg wrote concerning Mackall: ‘He will proceed with his aides and report to Gen. J. E. Johnston, now commanding the department from which he was transferred. With a grateful sense of the distinguished services rendered by this accomplished officer in the high position he has filled, the commanding general tenders him his cordial thanks and wishes him all success and happiness in his future career. The general and the army will long feel the sacrifice made in sparing the services of one so distinguished for capacity, professional acquirements and urbanity.’ In November, now being on duty in the department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, he was assigned to the command of the brigades lately under General Hebert. In January, 1864, after serving for a time with Gen. Leonidas Polk, who recommended his promotion to majorgen-eral, he returned to Johnston, then in command of the army of Tennessee, and being appointed chief-of-staff, served in that capacity throughout the famous campaign against Sherman from Dalton to Atlanta. After the removal of Johnston he was relieved from his staff duties at his own request, but he continued to participate in the Confederate operations, and on April 20, 1865, after the surrender of Lee's army, joined with Generals G. W. Smith and Howell Cobb in the surrender of Macon, Ga. General Mackall died August 12, 1891.
Brigadier-General Bradley T. Johnson, as commander of the Maryland Line, became most prominently the representative Marylander in the South. Ardent in his devotion to the cause, intelligent in his performance of duty, with a courage that was fearless as was his gallantry conspicuous, he attained a reputation throughout the service, and won repeated commendation and honorable mention  at the hands of his superiors. His highest ambition was that his loved State should be properly represented in the great struggle for liberty, honor and home rule. No inducement that would separate him from this great purpose was for a moment considered. As a Marylander he entered the army of the Confederacy associated with Maryland troops. Their fame was his fame; the honor of their record was his honor; and the perpetuation of the story of their privations and the glories of their triumphs was to him the ever-prevailing object of his efforts. To them he gave his loving care, and for them he made the sacrifices of the four years war. Thus it can be readily understood why, then and since, Bradley T. Johnson has been recognized as the typical Marylander in the Confederate army, and the love and devotion so freely bestowed on the men of the Maryland line have in return followed him to this day, and make glad his declining years. He was without the great advantages of military education, his early efforts being given to that more prosaic profession, the law. In this he attained a degree of success and was becoming prominently known when the disruption of the Democratic party occurred and the fatal struggle of 1860 was precipitated. When the dire alternative was presented of taking sides against conviction and kindred, or against the Federal government, and the crisis was accentuated by the passage of troops through Baltimore, Johnson, in command of a company of Frederick volunteers, was among the first to unhesitatingly tender his services to defend the city and State. When futility of opposition by the State to the Federal power became apparent he moved his company to Point of Rocks, and declining a commission as lieutenant-colonel in the Virginia service from Governor Letcher, endeavored to organize a distinctively Maryland command. His hopes were realized in the organization of the First regiment, whose record, which cannot be disassociated from the history of his own gallant career, has been eloquently  told in the preceding pages. Acting first as major, he became lieutenant-colonel after First Manassas, and colonel in March, 1862. During the famous Valley campaign under Stonewall Jackson the ability of Johnson as a commanding officer was abundantly manifested, and in general orders his name received most honorable mention. On the right flank of McClellan before Richmond he gallantly led his Marylanders to victory at Gaines' Mill, and during the night of terror and apprehension following the fight at Malvern Hill he kept vigil among the dead and dying until dawn revealed that McClellan had withdrawn to the protection of his fleet. Subsequently, while recruiting at Charlottesville, it was deemed expedient by the Confederate war department to disband the gallant regiment, and Colonel Johnson was left without command. He then readily yielded to the invitation of Generals Jackson and Ewell to accompany them in the operations of August, 1862. During Jackson's brilliant movement to the vicinity of Manassas Junction, Colonel Johnson was assigned to the command of the Virginia brigade of Gen. J. R. Jones, temporarily absent by reason of sickness. After the capture of Manassas Junction, while Hill moved in the direction of Centerville, and Ewell held the railroad line at Bristoe station, Johnson took position at Groveton, a few miles south of the famous stone bridge over Bull run, to resist the advance of Pope. This important service he successfully performed until Taliaferro had come up and Jackson's forces were united. The sanguinary battle of the 28th followed, leaving the armies substantially on the old lines of July, 1861, but with positions reversed. On the 29th, after repeated assaults on the Confederate left under Hill, the attack was made on Johnson's line, which connected with Hill's right. Permitting the enemy to enter the edge of the woods in which he was stationed he gave command to fire and then to charge, and hurled the Federals back to their original position, bringing off two pieces of artillery. In this crisis he acted  without instruction, the occasion not admitting of delay. The headlong movement was witnessed by General Hood from the hills of Groveton, and the latter impetuous fighter sent an officer over to inquire what command had so magnificently risen to the emergency. On the 30th Johnson advanced his line to the railroad cut before his position, and there his men repulsed charge after charge. After ammunition gave out they used stones with great effect. Finally reinforced by Stafford and aided by Pender, the Federals were swept from the field. During the Maryland campaign General Jones resumed command of his brigade, but Jackson was anxious that the young Maryland officer should be continued in duty adequate to his talent. He addressed the war department under date of September 4th, as follows: ‘I respectfully recommend that Col. Bradley T. Johnson, late colonel of the First Maryland regiment, be appointed brigadiergen-eral. While I was in command at Harper's Ferry, in the early part of the war, Colonel Johnson left his home in Maryland and entered our service, where he continued until his regiment was recently disbanded. I regarded him as a promising officer when he first entered the army, and so fully did he come up to my expectations that when his regiment was disbanded I put him in command of a brigade, and so ably did he discharge his duties in the recent battles near Bull Run as to make it my duty, as well as my pleasure, to recommend him for a brigadier-generalcy. The brilliant service of his brigade in the engagement on Saturday last proved that it was under a superior leader, whose spirit was partaken of by his command. When it is so difficult to procure good general officers, I deem it due the service not to permit an opportunity of securing the services of one of such merit to pass unimproved.’ Upon the occupation of Frederick by the army of Northern Virginia, Colonel Johnson was appointed provost-marshal, and his knowledge of the country and its people was of value to General Lee, with whom he was in  frequent conference. When Jackson moved toward Harper's Ferry, he was sent to Richmond with important dispatches from General Lee. This was the occasion of his appointment as a member of the military court then being organized, with the rank of colonel of cavalry. The recommendation of General Jackson was for the time not acted upon for the reason, creditable to Maryland, that so many general officers had already been appointed from that State. On February 4, 1863, General Jackson renewed his recommendation for Colonel Johnson's promotion and urged his assignment to command Taliaferro's brigade of the Stonewall division, concluding an earnest appeal with the words, ‘I do not know of any colonel who, in my opinion, is so well qualified for the position in question.’ A week later Jackson again urged action upon his recommendation. In a few months came Chancellorsville, and the heroic Jackson was no more. Though his promotion was still delayed, Johnson, upon the call of the Marylanders in the valley, secured his relief from the military court and reached his comrades at Gettysburg on the morning of July 2d, intent upon his cherished plan of organizing the Maryland Line, which he had been selected to command. But the exigencies of the Pennsylvania campaign made this for the time impracticable, and his service until after the return to Virginia was as temporary commander again of the brigade of General Jones. In November, 1863, he was ordered to Hanover Junction, and there, as has been related, he finally brought together a considerable Maryland command. Toward the close of February, 1864, operating against Kilpatrick's raid, he had opportunity to render service of great value by the capture at Yellow Tavern of a dispatch from Dahlgren, and promptly acted as the emergency demanded. Gen. Wade Hampton in a letter to General Lee stated that he was convinced that ‘the enemy could have taken Richmond, and in all probability would have done so, but for the fact that Colonel Johnson  intercepted a dispatch from Dahlgren to Kilpatrick, asking what hour the latter had fixed for an attack on the city, so that both attacks might be simultaneous;’ and in his report the gallant South Carolinian complimented the Marylander for his gallantry in attacking the enemy at Beaver Dam, with a handful of men, and hanging on their rear, striking them continually, and never losing sight of them until they had passed Tunstall's station. Hampton further expressed his appreciation by presenting Johnson with a saber. This promptly won distinction as a cavalry leader he confirmed by his service against Merritt's division at Pollard's farm, and under Hampton at Trevilian's. June 25, 1864, he received his commission as brigadier-general and was assigned to the command of the cavalry brigade lately led by Gen. William E. Jones, killed at New Hope church. The service of this command under his gallant leadership is narrated in the preceding pages. His prime object in the Maryland campaign under Early was the release of the Confederate prisoners at Point Lookout, which had been discussed by General Lee and the President. Regarding the selection of a leader for this hazardous duty, General Lee had written the President: ‘It will be well he should be a Marylander, and of those connected with the army, I consider Col. Bradley T. Johnson the most suitable. He is bold and intelligent, ardent and true, and yet I am unable to say whether he possesses the requisite qualities. Everything in an expedition of this kind depends upon the leader.’ But he was fated not to be permitted to perform this service, being recalled after he made a detour around Baltimore to Beltsville by information from Early that the expedition was about to retire to Virginia. Later in July, 1864, he was associated with General McCausland in command of the expedition to Chambersburg, Pa., and as he occupied the place with his brigade it fell his lot to execute the orders of General Early to burn the town. Justifiable as it was, as a stern and righteous retribution  for the outrages in the valley, the work was no less repugnant to him and to the large majority of his command. He announced that no plundering would be permitted; nothing was to be appropriated but boots, shoes and army stores. Before the work of destruction had ceased many of his men were seen to unite with the residents in efforts to suppress the flames or rescue property. At Hancock his indignant protest prevented a similar visitation upon a community that had representatives in the Confederate service. The disaster at Moorefield followed, where General Johnson narrowly escaped capture and was distinguished by his efforts to retrieve the day. That he was not censurable was evidenced by the refusal of General Early to order the investigation demanded by him soon afterward. During the campaign in the valley against Sheridan he did all that a gallant officer could do in the face of overwhelming opposition. At Winchester, September 9th, he fought from dawn to night, and by a headlong charge of his brigade gave Ramseur at a critical moment an opportunity to reform his lines. When heavy losses made it necessary to reorganize and consolidate commands, Johnson, being junior in rank and not commanding troops from his own State, gave way to others in the field, and in the latter part of November, 1864, was given command of the post at Salisbury, N. C. This had been a Confederate military prison, but on the advance of Sherman through Georgia a large number of Federal prisoners were transferred thither, without adequate preparations for their care. Officers and men were huddled in the overflowing buildings, and boxes and even excavations in the earth were employed for shelter from the rigor of approaching winter. The post was also in danger from the inroads of Federal guerrillas. Under such circumstances General Johnson was called on to take charge, and his active efforts toward restoring order and alleviating distress met with the best of results. He secured the issuing of fuel to the prisoners, and of food identical with  that of his own men; through his representations to the Confederate government the Federal government was induced to send supplies by their own officers through the lines; and, through the co-operation of Governor Vance, all that was possible was done to relieve distress. Finally, in the early days of March, 1865, he was enabled to start his charge in the direction of Wilmington for delivery to their friends. Within sixty days the struggle came to an end, and then as is well remembered those who were connected with the prison posts were made the subjects of investigation by military courts. But the archives at Raleigh and Richmond, and the voluntary testimony of those he had guarded, were so eloquent of the humanity of General Johnson that he was promptly relieved of persecution. Finding himself broken in fortune he made his home at Richmond and resumed the practice of his profession. As soon as the restrictive legislation of the reconstruction period admitted, he entered public life, and served in the senate of Virginia with distinction. His heart, however, still yearned for his native State, and in 1878 he removed to Baltimore, where his efforts were at once enlisted in the organization of the Society of the Army and Navy of the Confederate States in Maryland, and in the formation of the Association of the Maryland Line. The perpetuation of the record of Maryland in the armies of the Confederacy, and the relief of needy and disabled Confederates were to him duties paramount to all other obligations. He was at once placed at the front in all movements which represented the Confederate sentiment of the State. He became and still continues the president of the Army and Navy society, and of the Association of the Maryland Line, and he contributed largely in effort and influence to the establishment of the Home for Confederate veterans. Now, in the fullness of honors and in complete assurance of the love of his old comrades, he is living in retirement in his Virginia home. The State holds him in reverence as one  of its heroes, worthy of a place with Howard, Smallwood and Gist, of the Revolution, as their honored successor in the ‘Maryland Line.’ George W. Booth.
Brigadier-General Joseph Lancaster Brent, of Baltimore, distinguished for his service in various arms of the Confederate military forces, was born in Charles county, Maryland, in 1826. He was reared at his native place, and attended college at Georgetown, D. C. When the war broke out, he was in California, but the ties of sympathy were too strong to be overcome by his great distance from home, and he took ship for the seat of war, in company with William M. Gwyn, ex-United States senator, and Calhoun Benham, United States district attorney in California. But on the high seas they were arrested by Gen. E. V. Sumner, and the three were sent to Fort Lafayette, and held two or three weeks, when they were paroled and permitted to go to Washington. They sought to be relieved of this coercion and finally, through the influence of George D. Prentice, a brother-in-law of Mr. Benham, Mr. Brent was discharged from restraint without being required to take the oath of allegiance, which he had refused to do. He proceeded to Richmond in the winter of 1861-62, and at once entered the Confederate service, with rank of captain, on the staff of Gen. J. B. Magruder, in command of the district of Yorktown. After the conclusion of the Yorktown campaign, he was promoted major of artillery and assigned to duty as chief ordnance officer of the right wing of the army of Northern Virginia, under command of General Magruder, as the army was organized by Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. Major Brent held this position until the close of the Peninsular campaign of 1862, contributing to the success of the Confederate arms, and was then assigned to the staff of Gen. Richard Taylor, who was in command of the district of Western Louisiana. He participated in the military operations of this  district as chief of artillery and ordnance, with rank of colonel July, 1862; also commanded First Louisiana brigade cavalry until, in October, 1864, he was promoted brigadier-general of cavalry, in which rank he served until the close of the war. At the time of the surrender he was in command of the forces of the front line in the West. extending from Arkansas to the Gulf, the last line held by the Confederate army. One of the most exciting exploits in which General Brent was engaged was the capture of the Federal ironclad Indianola, early in the spring of 1863. The Indianola, after running the batteries at Vicksburg, had proceeded to the mouth of the Red river, and thence started back up the river. Unexpectedly to him, Brent was assigned by General Taylor to take command of two boats and engage the Indianola. The boats on the Red river available were the side-wheel steamer, Webb, which was used as a towboat before-the war, and was without any protection whatever, except tiers of cotton bales about the boiler, and the Queen of the West, a gunboat captured a few days before from the Federals at Fort DeRussy on Red river. The latter was a modern boat, with bow strengthened for ramming, but had no protection for her machinery except tiers of cotton bales. With this flotilla General Brent started in pursuit of the ironclad Indianola and overtook her twenty miles below Vicksburg. He immediately engaged his formidable antagonist, which carried 11-inch guns, a shot from which, properly served, would have disposed of either of the Confederate vessels. But every time the iron shutters of the Indianola were raised to allow a gun to be fired, the men of the Webb or Queen of the West would open on them with rifles, with the result that the Federal gunners were demoralized. Only one ball from the Indianola struck the Queen of the West, and that did no damage further than scatter a lot of her defensive armor, cotton bales, like leaves in an autumnal gale. Meanwhile the wooden boats rammed the Indianola repeatedly,  until she was surrendered by her commander. Her crew were overcome with shame by this capitulation, especially when they saw the vulnerability of the two boats which had so daringly given them battle. Only six or eight men were lost by Brent in this engagement. After the surrender of the armies, General Brent was paroled at Alexandria, La., in May, 1865, and thence returned to Baltimore, where he resumed the practice of law, in which he had been engaged before the war. In 1870 he went to Louisiana and engaged in planting until 1888, when he again took up his residence at Baltimore, which has since been his home. While a resident of Louisiana he twice served in the legislature of the State. At Baltimore he is held in high regard, and especially by his comrades of the Confederate army. He is a member of the society of the Army and Navy.