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[173] during the Canada border disturbances in 1840, and on the Maine frontier in 1841-42. In the Mexican war he gained the brevet of captain by gallant service at Monterey, and of major for his record at Contreras and Churubusco. He served as adjutant-general on the staff of Generals Butler and Worth in 1846-48, and subsequently as adjutant-general of the Western division and the Third military department. After two years as treasurer of the Soldiers' Home, he made a tour of inspection of the Florida and Gulf posts, and in 1853 became adjutant-general of the Eastern division, and in 1856 of the department of the Pacific. In May, 1861, he declined promotion to lieutenant-colonel of staff, and then resigned, to offer his services to the Confederate States. He was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, and became adjutant-general on the staff of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston. He was promoted brigadier-general early in 1862, and was assigned by General Johnston to the command of the Confederate forces at Madrid Bend and Island No.10, where he was captured, with a large number of men, by the Federal army under Pope, on April 8th. He was exchanged later in the season, and General Beauregard, who had written to AdjutantGen-eral Cooper that he considered ‘the services of Mackall as a division commander indispensable at this critical juncture,’ was able to send word to Mackall under date of August 22d, ‘I am happy to hear of your safe return to the Confederacy, and hope you will soon receive a command commensurate with your merit.’ Gen. Samuel Jones, commanding the department of Tennessee, asked that General Mackall be assigned to that department to command a brigade, and a special order was issued accordingly. In December following he was given command of the district of the Gulf, and in February, 1863, being succeeded by General Buckner, he took charge of the Western division of that district. In April, 1863, he was appointed chief-of-staff by Gen. Braxton Bragg, with

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