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[70] would find it difficult to survive the winter in this devastated region, and few dwelling-houses were left standing from the Narrows to the Gauley along the main lines of travel. For lack of subsistence, Echols withdrew to the Princeton and Lewisburg line, and Jenkins was ordered into Greenbrier and Pocahontas counties. This was the situation as winter came on in 1862, practically the same as in the previous year at that season.

In the Northeast there had been active operations fol-. lowing the battle of Sharpsburg and Lee's occupation of the lower Shenandoah valley. A few days before Stuart set out on his famous Chambersburg raid around Mc-Clellan's army, Col. J. D. Imboden had made an attempt to destroy the Cheat river bridge, but was prevented by the daring of a Union woman, who rode 25 miles through the woods to warn the enemy. He next made a raid to Romney, seized the town and scouted toward the railroad, drawing a party of the enemy into ambush. He reported, ‘We unhorsed fifteen of the rascals, wounding several; captured two unhurt,’ and horses and arms. He had now about 900 men, but only 600 armed, and with this little force kept Kelley with 2,500 men running up and down the railroad. Imboden did much to restore order in Hardy county, and reported that the mountains were full of willing recruits for the Confederate cause. He also gathered cattle and other supplies under the orders of General Lee.

In November Imboden made an expedition which, in connection with reports that Stonewall Jackson with 40,000 men had returned to the Shenandoah valley, created consternation in the North and caused the recall of many Federal regiments from the Kanawha valley. Imboden with 310 mounted men set out from his Hardy county camp on the 7th, in a snowstorm, for Cheat river bridge. All the next day he marched along a cattle path over the Alleghanies, his men being compelled by the storm to dismount and lead their horses. At mid-

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