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[223] together all the troops within his reach; Williams was recalled from his march toward Manassas, with the request that his rear brigade, already 20 miles away, should march all night and rejoin him on the morning of the 24th. He gathered all the men he could find in his rear to join him by forced night marches. Banks was halted, on his way to Washington, at Harper's Ferry. He promptly ordered back all of Williams' division and returned at once to Winchester, retaining Sedgwick at Harper's Ferry. Jackson's prompt action and bold attack had completely changed McClellan's plans, and instead of establishing Banks near Manassas with 20,000 men, he ordered him to remain in the Valley with all these forces and sent him 10,000 more, detached from his own army, to aid in driving back Jackson or to meet another anticipated attack.

McClellan sent his orders to Banks on the 1st day of April, from the steamer on which he was just starting to join his command at Fortress Monroe. Disquieted by what had happened, Lincoln ordered the retention of Mc-Dowell's corps in front of Washington until further orders. On the 1st of April, 73,456 men and 109 cannon were held for the defense of that city. Of these, 18,000 were in the forts around Washington, 1,350 along the Potomac above that city, 10,859 at Manassas, 7,780 at Warrenton, and 35,467 (including the 10,000 under Blenker ordered to him) were with Banks in the Shenandoah valley. When Lincoln, on the 3d of April, detained McDowell's corps, it was, as he informed McClellan on the 9th, because he feared that the Confederates might turn back from the Rappahannock and sack Washington. On the 4th, McDowell was put in command of the forces between the Blue ridge and Fredericksburg, including those in the defenses of Washington; his command, thus made independent of McClellan, was called the department of the Rappahannock; Banks was placed in command of the department of the Shenandoah, including that valley and its extension into Maryland, and Fremont was put in command of the Mountain department, embracing the Appalachian region west of the Valley.1

Jackson established his headquarters at Woodstock March 24th, at Narrow Passage the 26th, and at Hawkinstown on the 29th. Banks made an advance on the

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