these numerous Federal batteries swept the entire front.
This part of the Federal
line was less than a mile long, and nearly the whole of McClellan
's great army was placed within this mile of frontage and a half mile back of it
Just in the rear of this formidable battle array, the road to Harrison
's landing, the point on the James
to which McClellan
was retreating, diverged to the southeastward from the Quaker
road and from the Malvern ridge
At right angles to his main line and extending southward from his left for nearly a mile to the eastward of the Quaker
had covered the bluffs, looking to the westward, with his splendid train of heavy siege guns which he had carefully saved for such an occasion.
These swept the whole country in his rear and also the approaches from Richmond
by the River
At the southern end of this projecting ridge and at right angles to its line of heavy batteries, was a still more formidable massing of guns, commanding the River
road under the brow of the ridge and leading to the position at Harrison
's landing, which he had already covered with formidable earthworks.
's division was also placed across this River road at the point of the ridge.
had another strong arm of defense which was a hitherto unknown element in his fighting.
A large number of Federal gunboats had come up James river
and were anchored in Turkey Island bend
, so that their guns not only enfiladed the whole western front of McClellan
's position, but had a range, for their huge shells, to beyond the northern front of his line of battle, and raked the right of the position the oncoming Confederate lines of attack would be compelled to occupy.
This co-operation of the sea power of the Federals
more than doubled the strength of its local land power, great as that was, and effectually prevented any attack upon the left flank or the rear of the Malvern ridge
Continuing his pursuit of McClellan
on the 1st of July, Lee
reached the front of the Federal
position about noonday, and disposed a portion of the forces of Huger
, which had approached by the converging roads before referred to; the former on the right and the latter on the left.
had been ordered to the same point, by the Quaker
road, but it so happened that there were two roads in that region having the same name; he