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[487] continuing to opposite Williamsport, Md. The 27th and 28th were spent in destroying the Baltimore & Ohio railroad in the vicinity of Martinsburg, the cavalry guarding the flanks of the army.

On the 27th of July, McCausland, with his own and Johnson's brigades of cavalry, started on a memorable raid to Chambersburg, Pa., by way of Clear Spring, Md., where he encamped that night, reaching Chambersburg, by way of Mercersburg and St. Thomas, on the 30th, and demanding a named sum of money as an indemnity for the wanton burning of the house of Hon. A. R. Boteler, near Martinsburg, and that of Governor Letcher, by Hunter, in Lexington; declaring, at the same time, that if the indemnity were not paid, he would burn the town in retaliation and to put a stop to such vandalism. Payment was not made, and the town was given over to the flames. The same day McCausland marched to McConnellsburg for the night, and on the 31st fell back to the Potomac, at Hancock, then followed the National road to Cumberland, August 1st, and thence down that river to Old Town, where he crossed into Virginia and encamped that night at Springfield. The next day he marched up the South branch of the Potomac to Romney, where he spent the 3d; then on the 4th he crossed over to New Creek, then back to Burlington and on to Moorefield on the 6th, where he was attacked and surprised in his camp by Averell's cavalry that had been following him, and driven out with loss and in confusion toward Lost river, which his shattered forces reached on the 7th. On the 8th, he rejoined the army at Mt. Jackson, in the Shenandoah valley.

On the 29th of July, Rodes and Ramseur marched to Williamsport, their skirmishers driving the enemy to Shepherdstown and clearing the way for McCausland to cross at McCoy's ford. The enemy's cavalry fired on their line of march at Falling Waters. After the passing of McCausland, the infantry returned to the Virginia side to encamp. These divisions fell back to Martinsburg on the 30th, and on the 31st to Bunker Hill, between which and Darkesville the entire army encamped, and where it remained during the 1st, 2d and 3d of August.

On the 4th of August, Breckinridge's corps, to draw attention from McCausland, advanced to Shepherdstown, by way of Leetown, while Rodes and Ramseur marched,

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