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 of Richmond and Norfolk, and was appointed cadetat-large, July 1, 1852, to the military academy at West Point, where he was graduated July 1, 1856, and promoted to a brevet lieutenancy in the Second cavalry. He served on frontier duty in Kansas, Nebraska and that region, with promotion to second lieutenant of the First cavalry, September 30, 1856, and first lieutenant, March 21, 1861, until the secession of his State from the United States. Resigning April 25, 1861, he offered his services to Virginia, and was appointed captain in the State forces April 28th. He was at once assigned to the staff of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, as assistant adjutant-general, and later was transferred to the field of operations beyond the Mississippi, as inspector-general upon the staff of the gallant Texan, Brigadier-General McCulloch, who commanded a division of Van Dorn's army. After Mc-Culloch fell he was promoted inspector-general on the staff of Maj.-Gen. Earl Van Dorn, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He served in this capacity from July, 1862, until October, when he was made inspector-general of the army of East Tennessee. While with the western armies he participated in the battles of Pea Ridge, Ark., Farmington and Corinth, Miss., the first defense of Vicksburg from siege, Baton Rouge, La., Spring Hill and Thompson Station, Tenn. On February 8, 1863, he was promoted colonel and called to the eastern campaigns. As colonel of the Eleventh Virginia cavalry, in W. E. Jones' brigade, he participated in the raid in West Virginia, and the subsequent Pennsylvania campaign, including the battles of Brandy Station, Winchester, Rector's Cross-roads, Upperville, Gettysburg and Buckland. On July 23, 1863, he was promoted brigadier-general and assigned to the command of a brigade of cavalry organized for him of the Fifth, Sixth and Fifteenth Virginia regiments, and the First Maryland cavalry. Under his command this brigade was one of the principal factors in the subsequent operations of Fitz Lee's division, including the fighting at Culpeper Court House, Morton's Ford, the second encounter at Brandy Station, Tod's Tavern, the Wilderness campaign, Cold Harbor, Yellow Tavern, Reams' Station and Trevilian's. His gallant and cool leadership in these important engagements led to his promotion, August 10, 1864, to the rank of major-general. He was given command of a
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