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[632] the Memoirs of Gen. R. E. Lee, a model of biographical history, containing a very clear and most intelligent account of the military operations of the army of Northern Virginia. This book was published in 1886. He also prepared reminiscences of his army life, and a sketch of Stonewall Jackson, which so far has not been published. By reason of his infirmity he was compelled to use a slate prepared for the use of the blind, and to depend on members of his family and on friends for much assistance. Under all these disadvantages he worked along uncomplainingly, drawing his interest and delight from what was most pleasant in his past life, cheerful, and always with placid courage looking forward to the end of his sad but honored career. He died April 29, 1891, leaving a wife and two children, Virginia L. and E. McLean.

Major-General John Bankhead Magruder

Major-General John Bankhead Magruder, conspicuous in the early operations in Virginia, was born at Winchester, Va., August 15, 1810. He was graduated at the West Point military academy in 1830, with the brevet of second lieutenant, Seventh infantry, and was assigned to the artillery school at Fort McHenry, Md. He subsequently served in various garrisons, on recruiting service and in the occupation of Texas. On March 31, 1836, he was commissioned first lieutenant of artillery. In the Mexican war he commanded the light battery attached to General Pillow's division, and after gallant service at Palo Alto was made captain of the First artillery. At Cerro Gordo he won the brevet rank of major, and he afterward participated in the skirmish of La Hoya, Ocalaca, the storming of Chapultepec and the capture of the city of Mexico. After the close of this war he served in Maryland and California and was in command of Fort Adams at Newport, R. I. At the formation of the Confederacy he promptly tendered his services and was commissioned colonel, C. S. A., March 16, 1861. Promotion rapidly followed to brigadier-general, June 17th, and major-general, October 7, 1861. He was assigned to command of the artillery in and about Richmond on April 29th, and soon afterward was given charge of the Virginia State forces in that locality. Put in command of the district of Yorktown in May, he defeated a Federal force at Big Bethel, the first battle of the war, in which his success gave confidence to the Confederate soldiers

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