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[633] everywhere, and correspondingly depressed the Northern troops. He remained in this command until February, 1862. Stationed at Yorktown, with about 12,000 men, confronting McClellan's great army of invasion, he demonstrated his remarkable ability as a master of ruse and strategy, causing McClellan to believe that a force superior to his own disputed his advance. Magruder was not actively engaged at Seven Pines, but after General Lee took command, he was put in charge of the left wing of the Confederate army, and during the operations north of the Chickahominy was left before Richmond to engage the attention of the Federals. No one could have better performed this feat than ‘Prince John,’ as he was known in the old Federal army, on account of his lordly air and brilliant ability to bring appearances up to the necessities of occasion. During the retreat of McClellan his troops made a spirited attack at Savage Station, and at Malvern Hill nine brigades under his orders made a heroic charge against the Federal position, but were repulsed with fearful slaughter. At this time the Confederate government determined to prosecute more vigorously the war in the West and attempt to recover lost territory in Missouri and Louisiana, and a department was formed of the Trans-Mississippi, and General Magruder sent to its command, with the understanding that Generals Hind-man, Taylor and Price would report to him. If this plan had been carried out, doubtless the history of the war in that region would have been other than it is, but there was a change before Magruder could reach the field, and he was recalled to Richmond and subsequently assigned to the district of Texas. He directed his attention at once to the defenseless condition of the coast, and caused the equipment of two cotton clad gunboats, and when the Federals attempted to occupy Galveston he recaptured the town January 1, 1863, made prisoners of the garrison, and caused the whole Federal blockade fleet to hoist the white flag, although the uninjured vessels afterward escaped. He continued in command, the district being enlarged to include New Mexico and Arizona, and in March, 1864, sent most of his forces to reinforce General Taylor against Banks. After the close of hostilities he went into Mexico and entered the army of Maximilian with the rank of major-general, serving until the downfall of the emperor. Then returning to the United

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