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[642] was commissioned lieutenant and ordered to the Enterprise on the Brazil station, was then transferred to the Ontario, afterward served as executive officer of the schooner Enterprise on the East India station, was transferred to the sloop-of-war Peacock, and returned to the United States in her the fall of 1837, having circumnavigated the globe, when he was given two years leave of absence to visit Europe. Subsequent duty was as ordnance officer in the Norfolk navy yard, then to the frigate Macedonia in the West Indies for two cruises of one year each, with Commodores Wilkinson and Shubrick; next two years at the Norfolk naval rendezvous; then as executive officer of the sloop-of-war Fairfield of the Mediterranean squadron in. 1844 and 1845. Returning in the Fairfield to the United States, he was ordered to the receiving battleship Pennsylvania at Norfolk in 1845. He was executive officer, and for two years lieutenant commanding the frigate Independence, flagship of Commodore Shubrick, during the Mexican war. Returning home in 1849, he was ordered on ordnance duty at Norfolk navy yard. In 1852-54, in command of the United States brig Perry, he served with the African squadron, and following that cruise became executive officer at the Norfolk navy yard, and a member of the Retiring board. He was promoted commander September 14, 1855. As assistant inspector of ordnance he remained at Norfolk until the spring of 1857, when he was given command of the sloop-of-war Germantown and attached to the East India squadron, returning to the United States in her in 1859. At the outbreak of the war of the Confederacy he was on duty at Norfolk as ordnance officer, to which he had been recalled a year previous. As soon as Virginia seceded he resigned his rank and office, and was appointed aide-de-camp on the staff of Governor Letcher of Virginia, with special duties in the organization of a State navy. He superintended the erection of the fortifications at the mouth of the James river, and those on the Nansemond river and Pagan creek. On June 10, 1861, he entered the navy of the Confederate States, with a commission as commander. Until the evacuation of Norfolk he served as ordnance officer at the navy yard, and during the actions of the Virginia in Hampton Roads he served as a volunteer in firing the 11-inch gun at Sewell's point against the Federal vessels. With the

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