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[270] proved themselves not to be justly exposed. Although, on former occasions, a seizure of the capital and the usurpation of power by a military chieftain had been generally followed, at least for a brief season, by an acquiescence of the Mexican people, yet they now rose boldly and independently to defend their rights.

President Juarez, after having been driven from the city of Mexico by Zuloaga, proceeded to form a constitutional Government at Guanajuato. From thence he removed to Vera Cruz, where he put his administration in successful operation. The people in many portions of the Republic rallied in its support and flew to arms. A civil war thus began between the friends of the Constitution and the partisans of Miramon. In this conflict it was not possible for the American people to remain indifferent spectators. They naturally favored the cause of President Juarez, and expressed ardent wishes for his success. Meanwhile Mr. Forsyth, the American Minister, still continued at the city of Mexico in the discharge of-his official duties until June, 1858, when he suspended his diplomatic relations with the Miramon Government, until he should ascertain the decision of the President. Its outrages toward American citizens and its personal indignities toward himself, without hope of amendment or redress, rendered his condition no longer tolerable. Our relations, bad as they had been under former governments, had now become still worse under that of Miramon. President Buchanan approved the step which Mr. Forsyth had taken. He was consequently directed to demand his passports, to deposit the archives of the legation with Mr. Black, our consul at the city of Mexico, and to proceed to Vera Cruz, where an armed steamer would be in readiness to convey himself and family to the United States.1

Thus was all diplomatic intercourse finally terminated with the Government of Miramon; whilst none had been organized with that of Juarez. The President. entertained some hope that this rupture of diplomatic relations might cause Miramon to reflect seriously on the danger of war with the

1 Letter of General Cass to Mr. Forsyth, July 15th, 1858. Senate Document, 1868-59, vol. L, p. 48.

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