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[280] President, ‘the army would perhaps exceed in numbers that actually engaged in any battle on the Confederate side during the present war.’ The President continued that it was unnecessary to suggest that there was an ‘imperative demand for prompt and vigorous action,’ to recover the territory from which the army had been driven, and restore the prestige of Confederate arms.

In his answer to the President, Johnston stated that to assume the offensive he must either invade middle or east Tennessee. The obstacles to the first course were Chattanooga, now a fortress, the Tennessee river, the rugged desert of the Cumberland mountains, and an army outnumbering his more than two to one. The second course would leave open the road to Atlanta. There was neither subsistence nor field transportation enough for either march. ‘I can see no other mode of taking the offensive here,’ he said, ‘than to beat the enemy When he advances, and then move forward. But to make victory probable, the army must be strengthened.’ He made the suggestion that negroes be substituted for soldiers on detached or daily duty, as well as company cooks, pioneers and laborers for engineer service, which would relieve 10,000 or 12,000 men for active duty.

The army of Tennessee spent the winter in the positions taken when the Federal pursuit stopped, Johnston fearing to remove to a better strategic line in the rear lest he might create an injurious impression. Cleburne held Tunnel Hill; Stewart, Mill Creek gap; Breckinridge lay between the gap and Dalton; Hindman was mainly southwest of Dalton; Stevenson near Hindman; Walker east of Dalton, and Cheatham south of Walker. Grant's army, 80,000 strong, occupied Chattanooga, Bridgeport and Stevenson.

During 1863 two regiments of Georgia State troops were organized with E. M. Galt as colonel of the First, and R. L. Storey of the Second. These were on duty at Charleston and Savannah, and late in the year on the

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