effective strength of the several armies for offensive purposes was about as follows: Army of the Cumberland, Major-General Thomas commanding; infantry, 54,568; artillery, 2,377; cavalry, 3,828; total 60,773; guns, 130; Army of the Tennessee, Major-General McPherson commanding; infantry, 22,437; artillery, 1,404; cavalry, 624; total 24,465; guns, 96; Army of the Ohio, Major-general Schofield commanding; infantry, 11,183; artillery, 679; cavalry, 1,697; total 13,559; guns, 28. Grand aggregate, troops 98,797, guns 254.As for the supplies, ‘a very respectable quantity’ had been accumulated at Chattanooga, and during the entire campaign, says the Federal commander, stores were sent forward in ‘wonderful abundance.’ Sherman made his forward movement during the first week in May by orders from Grant, skirmishing steadily at Stone church May 1st, Lee's cross-roads the 2d, and daily afterward at various points more or less severely through the entire month, gaining ground only to the south of the Etowah. Johnston was in a rough and partially mountainous country, which, while partly available for defense, also aided his antagonist in movements to the flank. The mountainous region in which the campaign began did not furnish formidable ranges lying across the avenues of attack, with flanks remote from convenient approach. It was true that Dalton and the Confederate line lay back of Rocky Face, an inaccessible ridge, but an inconsiderable detour would bring the enemy into the north end of the valley, and as the ridge lay parallel to the railroad essential to the safety of Johnston's army, a flank attack at the south would at once compel his retreat. At the beginning of the campaign, two Federals to one Confederate was approximately the relative strength of the opposing forces. After Polk united with Johnston, the difference was not so great, but was always sufficient to permit Sherman to take advantage of the topography, and while covering Johnston's front, to move his surplus force against the Confederate flank. Sherman's aggregate
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