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‘ [86] Wilmington narrows to Causton's bluffs, or by any other mode by which you can better accomplish it.’ It was a feature of the siege of Pulaski that the Federals were never able wholly to isolate the fort from communication by some of the marshy channels with the city.

On February 18th, following the disaster at Fort Donelson, General Lee was ordered by the war department to withdraw all forces from the islands in his department to the mainland, taking proper measures to save the artillery and munitions of war. About March 1st the works on Cumberland and Amelia island were abandoned, and Captain Blain's company was ordered to Savannah.

The military situation had now become very grave through the Federal successes in Kentucky and Tennessee. An intimation of what might be expected from the meeting in battle of the largely superior forces of the enemy and the overconfident soldiers of the Confederacy, had been furnished by the affair at Fishing creek, where General Zollicoffer was killed and the army of Crittenden practically annihilated. This was followed by a levy of troops, made February 2d, in which Georgia was called upon for twelve regiments. Soon afterward came the news of the surrender of Forts Henry and Donelson and the occupation of Nashville. In view of these conditions President Davis telegraphed General Lee at Savannah, March 2d, ‘If circumstances will, in your judgment, warrant your leaving, I wish to see you here with the least delay.’ On reaching Richmond, Lee was appointed military adviser of the president, and on March 14th, Maj.-Gen. John C. Pemberton. an officer of the old army, of fine reputation as an engineer, was appointed to the command of the department of South Carolina and Georgia. Meanwhile General Lawton had pressed for. ward the work of fortification. Fort Jackson was strengthened, shore batteries were located near it, and the battery at Thunderbolt was protected and reinforced. Toward the last of March scouting parties from the

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