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[206] and extensive, but were weak in the guns of great penetration demanded already in the development of warfare which had been brought about since April, 1861. To oppose the passage of vessels up the river, there were obstructions at the head of Elba island, a mile and a quarter below Fort Jackson, and at the same place was the floating battery Georgia. Near Fort Jackson was Battery Lee, and opposite, across the river, were Battery Cheves and Battery Lawton. Still farther up the river were Fort Boggs and Fort Hutchinson, opposite, and the Bay battery on the edge of town. The total armament of the Savannah river defenses was 44 guns and 4 mortars.

On the southward coast region there were Fort McAllister, Rosedew battery, Beaulieu battery, Isle of Hope siege train, Thunderbolt battery, Greenwich battery, and Fort Bartow at Carston's bluff, mounting in all 49 guns, 3 mortars and 12 field guns. On the lines extending from the swamp west of the city, around from the south and east to Fort Boggs, were mounted 41 guns. But it appears from the report of the board convened at Oglethorpe barracks, consisting of Generals Mercer, Taliaferro and Walker, and Capt. W. W. Gordon, that many of the guns were ineffective, and that a large increase in the number of guns and gunners, as well as troops in reserve, was needed.

On June 8, 1863, two United States gunboats, and one transport towing two large boats loaded with troops, started from St. Simon's island in the direction of Brunswick. The landing was disputed by Sergts. J. W. Taylor and Alexander Burney, with the Brunswick pickets, and after incessant firing for about three-quarters of an hour the boats withdrew. When Corp. A. E. Foreman, Corporal Lamb and Corp. T. E. Hazzard saw the boats leave St. Simon's island, they had hastened with all the men they could spare and greatly aided Taylor and Burney in repelling the enemy. Capt. W. W. Hazzard, of Company G, Fourth Georgia cavalry (Col. D. L. Clinch),

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