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[53] and unfailing courtesy did wonders in providing the absolutely necessary supplies, and making the men contented. All of General Price's staff, except his adjutant-general, Colonel Henry Little, were civilians, and knew nothing of the military duties their position imposed upon them. But they were willing and learned rapidly. The Granby mines furnished lead, and Governor Jackson's forethought had provided a supply of powder. Some artillery ammunition captured served as a pattern, and the cannoneers were soon able to make the necessary ammunition for their guns. Notwithstanding the embarrassments and drawbacks, the work of organization went steadily on, and by the last of the month the State Guards assumed form and substance and became an army of 4, 500 armed and 2,000 unarmed men, every one of whom was anxious to meet the enemy and retrieve the honor of the State. Still, they were a motley crowd. There was hardly a uniform among them—the insignia of even a general officer's rank usually being a stripe of some kind of colored cloth pinned to the shoulder.

General Price left Cowskin prairie on the 25th of July, and three days later reached Cassville. There he was joined by Brigadier-General McBride with 650 armed men, which made his effective force over 5,000. General Mc-Culloch reached Cassville the next day with his brigade, amounting to 3,200 men, nearly all armed. General Pearce was within ten miles of Cassville with his brigade of 2,500 Arkansas troops, together with two batteries, Woodruff's and Reid's. The entire force amounted to nearly 11,000 men, beside the 2,000 unarmed Missourians, who went with the army with the expectation of getting arms after a while. Price, McCulloch and Pearce each had an independent command, but they agreed upon an order of march, in conformity with which the combined forces began their advance on Springfield, fifty-two miles distant, on the last day of July. The first division, consisting of infantry under command of McCulloch, left

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