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 navy. For four years from that time, being still in the navy, he commanded an ocean steamer. Preferring that position he resigned from the regular service and continued in the merchant marine until it was evident that there would be war between the North and South. He then left the steamship service and in April, 1861, entered that of the Confederate States as captain of the First Louisiana artillery. He served as aide-de-camp to General Twiggs while that officer was commander of the post at New Orleans. In February, 1862, he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, Twenty-second Louisiana. At the time of the attack upon New Orleans, 1862, he was in command of Forts Jackson and St. Philip. He made a gallant defense of these forts so long as defense was possible, and then surrendered to the fleet which had already passed up the river and captured the city of New Orleans. In December, 1862, when Sherman marched against Vicksburg and attacked the Confederates at Chickasaw bayou, Colonel Higgins had charge of the heavy batteries at Snyder's mill. He conducted his defense so skillfully and valiantly that General Pemberton called particular attention to his conduct. He had received his commission as colonel on April 11, 1862, and had the Twenty-second Louisiana (artillery) under his command. He was placed in charge of the batteries of heavy artillery on the river front at Vicksburg in the beginning of 1863. He strengthened the works along the river in every way, preparing for the tremendous ordeal which those on this part of the Vicksburg line must pass. Long before the investment of the city by land, the men in charge of the river front were subjected to furious bombardment by the fleets of the enemy. In his management of the task committed to him he gave the greatest satisfaction to his superiors, and in the official report of the operations on every part of the line of defense prepared by General Pemberton after the fall of Vicksburg, he was especially complimented for coolness,
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