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 operating in Arkansas. In the spring of 1864 occurred the famous Red river expedition, so disastrous to the Union army. The evening of the day on which Taylor gained the brilliant victory at Mansfield, Churchill with his infantry, under Tappan and Parsons, joined him and took part in the fierce battle of Pleasant Hill, a conflict in which each army was considerably shaken, but which was followed by the retreat of Banks. Upon the retreat of Banks, Churchill's division was withdrawn from Taylor and sent to unite with Price in an attack upon Steele, and Tappan's brigade after a long march participated in the battle of Jenkins' Ferry. The Missouri expedition of General Price was the last great movement in the Trans-Mississippi, and in this Tappan bore an honorable part. At the close of the war General Tappan settled in Helena, Ark.
Brigadier-General Stand Watie, of white and Indian blood, was a prominent man in the Cherokee nation and intensely Southern in sentiment. From the beginning of the war between the North and South, efforts were made by Ben McCulloch and Albert Pike to secure for the Confederacy the alliance of the tribes of the Indian Territory. Stand Watie and others of his class were anxious to form this alliance, but John Ross, the principal chief of the Cherokees, hesitated. After the decisive victory of the Confederates at Wilson's Creek, the party represented by Watie succeeded in persuading Ross to join the South. Before that time General McCulloch had employed some of the Cherokees, and Stand Watie, whom he had appointed colonel, to assist in protecting the northern borders of the Cherokees from the raids of the ‘Jayhawkers’ of Kansas. When the Cherokees joined the South they offered the Confederate government a regiment. This offer was accepted, and in October, 1861, the first Cherokee regiment was organized, and Stand Watie was commissioned colonel. In December, 1861, he was engaged in a battle
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