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[167] to perfect such organizations as he could, and take command in northwest Arkansas. He issued his proclamation in accordance with these instructions, and soon organized Hill's battalion into a fine regiment; Gordon's and Morgan's regiments were added. He also organized Gunter's, Witherspoon's and Ousley's battalions, Hughey's battery, and the companies of Palmer, Ingraham and Wm. Brown. Crawford's battalion, organized under the order of General Holmes, of which J. M. Harrell was elected commanding officer, was ordered to Cabell, and it was not long before he had a command numbering about 4,000 men. This rapidly organized body redeemed that part of the State from the despondency into which it had been plunged by the retreat from Prairie Grove and other Confederate misfortunes.

Federal scouts—Missouri and Arkansas Federals, the latter organized under Col. M. La Rue Harrison—made constant forays into the border counties. Other bands of men, moving out of Missouri as State militia, made raids to plunder and kill the inhabitants. A merciless butcher, known as Captain Worthington, returned to Fayetteville from Carroll county, reporting that he had killed 22 men on the trip, and captured 7 ‘prisoners.’ The men killed were old citizens, or youths not subject to enlistment, and who therefore ventured to remain at home for the protection of the helpless women and children from violence at the hands of either side. If the grown men had gone away, no matter to which army, the raiders held their families to be Southern sympathizers, and as such shot them down, some of them in their own doors or front yards; and others, who had fled to the woods to conceal themselves, when discovered were condemned as bushwhackers. Less frequently, those under military age were captured as prisoners, by men who called themselves ‘Federal Arkansas soldiers.’

Col. John F. Philips, who commanded the Seventh Missouri State militia, which murdered the nine citizens

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