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[198] were hopeless, and with a few honorable exceptions almost completely demoralized. Corn could only be obtained by boating it up the river under convoy of cavalry along the river banks. Bass' regiment of Texans was employed in this duty, and for the defense of Fort Smith. The rest of Spaight's brigade he was ordered to send to Red river. General Cooper had adopted the system of ‘general furlough’ for his Indians, which many of the regiments in his command adopted. But there were others which refused, and, of course, had to be fed. It being impossible to subsist them on the line of the Arkansas river, they were ordered southward.

The organization of Steele's division, on April 30th, was reported as follows:

Brigade of Brig.-Gen. D. H. Cooper: First Cherokee, Col. Stand Watie; Second Cherokee, Col. W. P. Adair; First Choctaw and Chickasaw, Col. Tandy Walker; First Creek, Col. D. N. McIntosh; Second Creek, Col. Chilly McIntosh; First Chickasaw battalion, Lieut.-Col. L. M. Reynolds; Osage battalion, Major Broke Arm; Seminole battalion, Lieut.-Col. John Jumper; Texas partisan rangers, Col. L. M. Martin; Twenty-ninth Texas cavalry, Col. Charles De Morse; Scanland's squadron, Capt. John Scanland; cavalry company, Capt. L. E. Gillett; Howell's Texas battery; Lee's light battery. Brigade of Brig.-Gen. W. L. Cabell: Carroll's Arkansas cavalry, Lieut.-Col. Lee L. Thompson; Dorsey's squadron, Col. John Scott; Hill's Arkansas cavalry, Col. John F. Hill; Monroe's Arkansas cavalry, Col. J. C. Monroe; Bass' Texas cavalry, Lieut.-Col. T. D. Taliaferro; Texas cavalry company, Capt. W. J. Coggins; Crawford's Arkansas cavalry, W. A. Crawford, organizing officer, Maj. John M. Harrell commanding; Hughey's Arkansas battery.

Fort Smith was the strategic key to Indian Territory, and Steele, determined to hold it, applied to General Holmes for Monroe's regiment and Carroll's, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Thompson, at Roseville, Ark. General Holmes sent Monroe's regiment, about 400 strong, which, with Carroll's, was soon after ordered to report to

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