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Chapter 7:

  • Francis R. Lubbock, Governor
  • -- his message Recommends appropriation for raising troops -- reorganization of the militia -- military board created -- hospital fund -- county court to levy Taxes -- effort to have a northeast sub-district -- Brig.-Gen. H. E. McCulloch assumes command in it -- difficulty of raising infantry-cavalry Easily raised -- a number of infantry regiments sent to Arkansas and form a division -- capture of Arkansas post -- regiment sent to Indian Territory -- battle at Poison Spring -- troops sent to Mississippi and Tennessee -- regiments and battalions retained in Tex -- as -- State troops -- martial law -- conscription -- troops for Rio Grande.

At the regular State election in August, 1861, Francis R. Lubbock was elected governor of Texas, and John W. Crockett lieutenant-governor. The inauguration was on the 7th of November. The war having developed in good earnest, and our Gulf ports having been closely blockaded, Governor Lubbock entered vigorously into two leading projects: First, to give what aid he could to military operations; second, to aid in furnishing to families whatever was needed for their support; and these he continued efficiently to promote during his administration of two years. In his first message to the legislature he recommended a reorganization of the militia, which was done by dividing the State into thirty-three brigade districts, in which officers were appointed for organization, so as to have every man liable to military duty enrolled. He called attention to the defenseless condition of the coast and recommended provision [59] to be made for supplying cannon. For that and many other purposes the legislature created a military board, composed of the governor, comptroller and treasurer, with power to provide for the defense of the State, by recourse to any bonds and coupons which might be in the treasury, not exceeding $1,000,000. That board did through agents a large amount of business of various kinds, a summary statement of which will be made at the proper time. The governor also recommended that the goods manufactured at the penitentiary be devoted to supplying the army, which was done extensively by furnishing cloth for tents and clothing.

The legislature then in session passed a number of acts in aid of military operations as follows: To appropriate $1,000,000 for the support of State troops and other purposes, such as the purchase of arms and munitions of war; to authorize county courts to levy a special tax for war purposes; to create a hospital fund of $50,000, to be used by the governor through bonded agents appointed by him. Also joint resolutions: To authorize the governor to appoint persons to carry to soldiers clothes that may be contributed by citizens or otherwise; to require the adjutant-general of the State to collect such information as was necessary to make a register of Texas State and Confederate troops, which, unfortunately, was not done; to authorize the governor to have the salt lake in Hidalgo county, known as Sal del Rey, taken possession of by an agent, who was empowered to sell the salt at the usual price, etc., and act under the direction of the governor. Thus the executive officers were furnished by the legislature with ample means and authority to accomplish most important objects, military and otherwise, to promote the interest of the State and its people, as a part of the Confederate States.

During the session of the legislature, in the fall and winter of 1861, there was a concerted effort by the members from east and north of Trinity river to have a separate [60] military district organized there, with its headquarters at some central point for the purpose of organizing, training and fitting out troops for the war, to be sent where needed in an efficient body, and not to be sent in small bodies to different parts of the country out of the State, as seemed then to be the tendency of military operations. In other words, their object was the formation of a Texas army; and there were in the district indicated, men and means of every kind for that purpose.

A proposition was written and signed by those members and forwarded to the secretary of war, through one of our senators, who after presenting it gave assurance of its approval, but it was not acted upon. Still it had a good effect in the end, from the fact that Col. Henry E. McCulloch, having been appointed a brigadier-general and ordered across the Mississippi, on his way, about the end of the year, was fully informed of the effort that had been made to form a new district and of its military resources. He concluded, after failing to cross the river on account of its overflow, to go to the town of Tyler and there establish his headquarters, which he did, prescribing for himself a district in Texas, east of the Trinity river, and north of what was known as the old San Antonio road, and requiring all commands, either raised or passing through the district, to report to him. A great deal of work was done there in advancing the service during the first half of 1862, as will appear further on.

Before the end of the year 1861 the people of Texas had heard of the two splendid victories of the Confederate forces, that of Oak Hills in Missouri and that of Bull Run in Virginia; and while the information inspired a joyful pride, it discouraged the necessity for continued effort to follow the success attained. Volunteering in the service was very slow, especially in forming infantry battalions and regiments. The Confederate officers that were sent to organize troops in Texas were personally unknown, and consequently could exercise but little influence. [61] General Hebert having his headquarters first at Galveston, and then about the first month of 1862 at Houston, what was done was mainly in those places or near the coast. Colonels Moore, Nichols and Debray had raised some commands, Col. J. W. Spaight and Col. Allison Nelson had a few companies, and were gradually increasing their numbers to infantry regiments. Col. Robert Garland had for several months been recruiting men in or near the coast, and succeeded in making a regiment of infantry, organized at or near Houston, with Thos. S. Anderson lieutenant-colonel and Rhodes Fisher major, early in 1862, and was afterward in service at Arkansas Post.

Almost any one who could get authority from the general or from the secretary of war could raise battalions or regiments of cavalry. It became obvious that if any considerable number of infantry were raised in a reasonable time, that men of personal influence with the people must undertake it. Even then it was necessary to raise infantry troops for twelve months service, as thereby elderly men would enlist to encourage it, who would not be willing to go in for the war. Consequently, a number of prominent citizens organized regiments for one year and carried them into the service in Arkansas, where they were placed in brigades by order of Major-General Holmes, commanding the Trans-Mississippi department, and constituted a division of infantry, Texas troops. Those commands that had been raised as cavalry had been dismounted on getting to Arkansas, by General Hindman, in command previous to General Holmes.

The Texas division was organized as follows: First brigade, commanded by Col. Overton Young. Twelfth Texas, Overton Young, colonel; B. A. Philpot, lieutenant-colonel; I. W. Raine, major. Eighteenth Texas, Wm. B. Ochiltree, colonel; D. B. Culberson, lieutenant-colonel; W. H. King, major. Thirteenth cavalry, J. H. Burnett, colonel; W. A. Crawford, lieutenant-colonel; [62] C. R. Beaty, major. Twenty-second Texas, R. B. Hubbard, colonel; J. J. Cannon, lieutenant-colonel; P. F. Parks, major. Haldeman's battery, Horace Haldeman, captain.

Second brigade, commanded by Col. Horace Randal. Twenty-eighth cavalry, Horace Randal, colonel; C. H. Baxter, lieutenant-colonel; H. G. Hall, major. Eleventh Texas, O. M. Roberts, colonel; J. H. Jones, lieutenant-colonel; N. J. Caraway, major. Fourteenth Texas, Edward Clark, colonel; Wm. Bird, lieutenant-colonel; A. H. Rogers, major. Fifteenth Texas, Col. J. W. Spaight. Gould's battalion, Robert S. Gould, major. Daniels' battery, J. M. Daniels, captain.

Third brigade, commanded by Col. George Flournoy. Sixteenth Texas, Geo. Flournoy, colonel; Jas. E. Shepard, lieutenant-colonel; W. H. Redwood, major. Sixteenth cavalry, Wm. Fitzhugh, colonel; E. P. Gregg, lieutenant-colonel; W. W. Diamond, major. Seventeenth Texas, R. T. P. Allen, colonel; G. W. Jones, lieutenant-colonel; F. W. Tabor, major. Nineteenth Texas, Richard Waterhouse, colonel; E. W. Taylor, lieutenantcol-onel; W. L. Crawford, major. Edgar's battery, Wm. Edgar, captain.

Fourth brigade, commanded by Col. Jas. Deshler. Eighteenth cavalry, James Deshler, colonel; Nicholas H. Darnell, lieutenant-colonel; J. T. Coit, major. Tenth infantry, R. Q. Mills, colonel; Robert Young, major. Fifteenth cavalry, Geo. H. Sweet, colonel; W. K. Masters, lieutenant-colonel; G. B. Pickett, major. Twenty-fifth cavalry, Clayton C. Gillespie, colonel; Wm. N. Neyland, lieutenant-colonel; J. A. Dark, major.

Most of these regiments were furnished with cloth for tents, knapsacks, and for some clothing, by the State penitentiary at Huntsville, Tex. Many of them were supplied with wagons and teams at or near Tyler, by order of Brig.-Gen. Henry E. McCulloch, some of them also by Maj. J. E. Kirby, who was stationed at that [63] place by General Hebert for the purpose, and to establish a factory for making harness leather and saddles for the army. Those regiments that got to Arkansas first were stationed at what was later called Camp Nelson, commanded by Colonel Nelson, who was shortly afterward appointed brigadier-general, but died a short time after he was appointed. He was succeeded in the command by Gen. Henry E. McCulloch, who had gone there with a number of the regiments that he had fitted out with teams and wagons.

The Fourth brigade, under Colonel Deshler, was ordered to Arkansas Post at the mouth of the Arkansas river, and with Colonel Garland's brigade, composed of his regiment (Sixth infantry) and those of Colonels Wilkes (Twenty-fourth cavalry) and Gillespie (Twenty-fifth cavalry), were captured by the Federal forces, aided by their gunboats. After their exchange, in May, 1863, they did service east of the Mississippi river. The other three brigades constituted the division known during the war as Walker's division of Texas infantry, the largest body of Texas troops that retained their organization to the end of the war. It was in service in Louisiana in 1863 and 1864, and at the battles of Mansfield, Pleasant Hill, and Jenkins' Ferry, Ark. It was commanded by Maj.-Gen. John G. Walker during its active service. The brigades were commanded by Henry E. McCulloch, General Hawes, Gen. Wm. R Scurry, Gen. H. Randal, Gen. R. Waterhouse and Gen. T. N. Waul, at different times. There were also many changes in the field officers of the regiments.

In February, 1865, four cavalry regiments, Chisum's, Candle's, J. M. Wells', and De Morse's, were dismounted and distributed in the division, and a new brigade, the Fourth, formed with Flournoy, Candle's and Wells' regiments, and Brig.-Gen. W. H. King assigned to the command of it. The division was finally commanded by General Forney, when General Walker was placed in [64] command of the Texas department with headquarters at Houston. When the action of the division in various battles fought in Louisiana and Arkansas shall have been fully described, it will redound to the well-earned fame of the Texas soldier.

Other Texas regiments were organized in 1862 and sent to Arkansas. Three of them were cavalry regiments that were not dismounted: Carter's, G. W. Carter, colonel; W. Clinton Giddings, lieutenant-colonel; B. Q. Chenowith, major. Buford's, N. M. Buford, colonel; B. W. Watson, lieutenant-colonel; J. T. Daves, major. Parsons', Wm. H. Parsons, colonel; John W. Mullins, lieutenant-colonel; L. J. Farrar, major. These constituted Parsons' cavalry brigade, which served in Louisiana.

A brigade was formed near Fort Smith, of Texas troops, and the command of it assigned to Col. J. W. Spaight. It included Spaight's regiment, J. W. Spaight, colonel; Jas. E. Harrison, lieutenant-colonel; J. W. Daniels, major. Hawpe's regiment, T. C. Hawpe, colonel; G. W. Guess, lieutenant-colonel; J. T. Malone, major. Alexander's regiment, A. M. Alexander, colonel; J. H. Candle, lieutenant-colonel; J. R. Russell, major. Stevens' regiment, Jas. G. Stevens, colonel; Wm. H. Johnson, lieutenant-colonel; John A. Buck, major. Part of this brigade was in the battles of southern Louisiana, and was afterward under command of General Polignac in Mouton's division.

Other commands went to the Indian nation and to southern Arkansas under S. B. Maxey, R. M. Gano, Peter Hardeman, N. W. Battle, T. C. Ross, Jas. Duff, Charles De Morse, D. Showalter and Jas. Bourland. Colonel Maxey having been appointed major-general, in command of some of these forces, fought a successful battle at a place called Poison Spring, capturing a large wagon train and many prisoners.

While so many commands were going northward from [65] Texas to find active service in 1862, others went eastward for the same purpose. The following commands went to Mississippi for service: Ector's regiment, M. D. Ector, colonel; Abram Harris, lieutenant-colonel; T. M. Garrison, major. A legion—Whitfield's regiment, John W. Whitfield, colonel; E. R. Hawkins, lieutenantcol-onel; John H. Broocks, major. A legion—Waul's regiment, Thos. N. Waul, colonel; B. Timmons, lieutenant-colonel; Allen Cameron, major. Also Parker's, Smith's and Weeks' cavalry battalions. Some of these were in Brigadier-General Ross' command, and gained distinction in the service in Mississippi. In mentioning these regiments, the lieutenant-colonels and majors have been given when practicable, because the first colonels were often taken from their regiments by promotion, death or sickness, leaving others in command.

Ector's regiment went to Tennessee, where he afterward commanded a brigade. There also went the regiment of cavalry of M. F. Locke, colonel; J. M. Barton, lieutenant-colonel; W. Q. Craig, major. Camp's regiment, M. L. Camp, colonel; T. Camp, lieutenantcol-onel. Wilkes' regiment, F. C. Wilkes, colonel; R. R. Neyland, lieutenant-colonel; W. A. Taylor, major. Andrews' regiment, J. A. Andrews, colonel; J. A. Weaver, lieutenant-colonel; Wm. E. Estes, major.

Doubtless other commands left Texas, and more of them did leave when necessary for the protection of sister states, as will be exhibited in the reports of battles. Texas could well spare them on account of its favorable position, that made difficult an invasion by a large Federal army. On our western frontier and on the north fronting the Indian Territory there were no means of supplying a large army for a considerable distance before reaching well-settled portions of the State, and upon our Gulf coast the sandbars at the entrance of our ports were a protection against the entry of large vessels or gunboats. If war vessels should force an entrance to [66] our ports, there were no large rivers nor long railroads that would enable the enemy to penetrate the interior of the country. Texas, therefore, needed only such military force as could furnish protection against Indian depredations, and expel from our ports any portion of the enemy that might force an entrance into them.

There were a number of regiments, battalions and companies of artillery that were retained in Texas mostly, and some of them were ordered to different points where their services were needed, so that but few of them, except the artillery, were permanently located during the war. They were as follows:

Twenty-first infantry, A. W. Spaight, colonel; W. H. Griffin, lieutenant-colonel; T. C. Reynolds, major. Twentieth infantry, Henry M. Elmore, colonel; L. A. Abercrombie, lieutenant-colonel; R. E. Bell, major. Eighth infantry, A. M. Hobby, colonel; Daniel Shea, lieutenant-colonel; John Ireland, major. Thirty-fifth cavalry regiment, R. R. Brown, colonel; S. W. Perkins, lieutenant-colonel; L. C. Rountree, major. Twenty-third cavalry regiment, N. C. Gould, colonel; J. A. Grant, lieutenant-colonel; J. A. Corley, major. Thirtieth cavalry regiment, E. J. Gurley, colonel; N. W. Battle, lieutenant-colonel; J. H. Davenport, major. T. C. Anderson's cavalry regiment, formed from J. P. Border's and Fulcrod's battalions. Mann's cavalry regiment, W. L. Mann, colonel; W. F. Upton, lieutenant-colonel; J. E. Oliver, major. Terrell's cavalry regiment, A. W. Terrell, colonel; Jno. C. Robertson, lieutenant-colonel; H. S. Morgan, major. McCord's cavalry frontier regiment, J. E. McCord, colonel; J. B. Barry, lieutenant-colonel; W. H. Alexander, major. Cavalry battalions, Duff's, Morgan's, Daly's, Saufley's, Ragsdale's. Second infantry battalion, Col. C. L. Pyron, ten companies of cavalry. Thirty-fifth cavalry regiment, Jas. B. Likens, colonel; J. R. Burns, lieutenant-colonel; W. A. Wortham, major. Thirty-sixth cavalry regiment, P. C. Woods, colonel; Nat [67] Benton, lieutenant-colonel; W. O. Hutchinson, major.

There were on the Rio Grande, and at different points on the coast, artillery as follows:

Maj. D. D. Shea's two companies at Lavaca. Capt. R. B. Machlin's light battery on the Rio Grande. Capt. H. Wilkes' light battery at Corpus Christi. Capt. B. F. Neal's company heavy artillery at Corpus Christi. Capt. Krumbhoar's battery, mountain howitzers on Rio Grande. Captain Fontaine's light artillery, Houston. Colonel Cook's regiment heavy artillery, Hawe's heavy artillery, sapper's and miner's, Mosely's light artillery, Abbott's light artillery, at Galveston. O. G. Jones' battery, Sabine Pass. Hughes' battery, Sabine Pass. Fox's battery at Galveston. Dashiel's battery at Houston. Capt. W. H. Nichols' battery at Camp McNeill. The companies of light artillery were moved from place to place where their services were required at different times.

The following cavalry commands served in Texas for a time, and finally belonged to the division commanded by Gen. Tom Green, in Louisiana:

Cavalry battalion, B. E. Waller, lieutenant-colonel; H. H. Boone, major. Partisan Rangers, Walter P. Lane, colonel; R. P. Crump, lieutenant-colonel; A. D. Burns, major. Partisan Rangers, W. B. Stone, colonel; Isham Chisum, lieutenant-colonel; J. J. Vance, major. Partisan Rangers, L. M. Martin, colonel; W. M. Weaver, lieutenant-colonel; W. A. Mayrant, major.

There were a number of State troops that were called into service, generally only for a short time upon some emergency, including the infantry regiments commanded by D. B. Kerr, T. Camp, J. B. Wilmuth, John Sayles, and an infantry battalion commanded by M. G. Little; the cavalry regiments commanded by T. J. M. Richardson, J. B. Johnson, Tignal W. Jones, Gid Smith, and the cavalry battalions of D. D. Holland, J. M. Morris and Wm. Tate.

To describe the troops in the localities where the Confederate [68] and State troops were stationed at different times, would require many useless repetitions. It must suffice that their presence shall be noticed in any action against the enemy that required their participation. Yet those who endured the privations of the camp and the march, without being in battle, rendered good service by being part of the State Guard, armed and equipped, and ready to resist any aggression of the enemy. Such readiness, with the force at command, secured our protection and exhibited the necessity of maintaining it during the war.

Early in 1862 H. P. Bee was appointed brigadiergen-eral and assigned to duty in command of the Western sub-district, with his headquarters at San Antonio.

The Confederate Congress passed the conscript law on April 16, 1862, and it went into effect a month afterward. The exemption from military service of men who owned or were in charge of a certain number of slaves, by that law, had the effect of producing dissatisfaction in a few localities, which discouraged volunteering in the army. It was an excuse for some to say that ‘this is a rich man's war and a poor man's fight.’ The effect of the law was to put every able-bodied man over sixteen years of age and under forty-five in the army, except those exempt by the slaves under their control. This unfavorable influence was somewhat increased by the declaration of martial law by Gen. H. P. Bee, on the 28th of April, 1862, in the Western sub-district; also by the declaration of martial law by General Hubert over the whole State of Texas, on May 30, 1862. Provost marshals appointed by him were given extraordinary power over all persons suspected of disaffection. While these measures produced some annoyance occasionally, and some criticisms, they really bad but little effect, except in a few localities; for the war spirit at that time was at fever heat, and controlled the action of the mass of the people in Texas. [69]

Col. John S. Ford discharged the State troops that had gone in the expedition on the lower Rio Grande in 1861, when their term of service expired, and was relieved by Colonel Luckett and his command, who remained for some time at Fort Brown. Colonel Ford was ordered to San Antonio by General Bee in May, 1862, and by his suggestion was placed on conscript duty at Austin, and there organized his command for the discharge of that duty, with Capt. Wm. E. Walsh, Henry Trask, lieutenant and adjutant; Wm. Stowe, quartermaster and commissary; and Dr. Rogers, surgeon. A camp of conscription was located near Tyler with Lieut. Willie Thomas in command, aided by Lieutenant Broker. Similar camps were established in different parts of the State from time to time. Their purpose was to hunt out persons liable to military duty that did not volunteer, and send them into some regiment. That fact itself caused many to volunteer, to escape arrest by the conscript force. There is now no means of telling the number and location of those camps and the operations performed by them, further than that it is known they were continued during the war.

Before the discharge of the State troops that were under command of Colonel Ford on the lower Rio Grande, other troops were sent there that were in the Confederate service, who occupied different posts in 1862 and 1863, and subsequently in what was called the Western subdis-trict, which extended from a line due south from San Antonio to the Rio Grande, and from its mouth up to Laredo. It was important to have the posts on the Gulf protected, as well as to have the posts on the Rio Grande garrisoned, to facilitate the trade across that river into Mexico, for the export of cotton, and the purchase of arms and munitions of war and commodities for the use of families in Texas.

The forces in the Western sub-district were distributed as follows in 1862:

Capt. L. C. Pyron, two cavalry companies at Columbus. [70] Col. P. C. Wood's cavalry regiment, and Maj. D. D. Shea's artillery, at Lavaca. Maj. A. M. Hobby, infantry battalion, four companies, and Captain Wilke's battery, at Corpus Christi. Maj. Joseph Taylor, cavalry battalion, and Capt. Jas. Duff, two companies, at San Antonio. Col. P. N. Luckett's infantry regiment, ten companies; Capt. R. Benevides, one cavalry company; Maj. Wm. O. Yager, four cavalry companies; Capt. E. Cruegbaur's heavy artillery; Capt. R. B. Maclin's light artillery, and Capt. S. Benavides, one cavalry company, on the Rio Grande from Fort Brown to Laredo.

Although these particular commands did not continue in that sub-district, there was generally an effort to keep a force there sufficient to protect the ports and keep the way open for the Mexican trade. [71]

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