He was appointed a lieutenant of artillery in the Confederate army and was at first ordered to report to General Hardee
in the Trans-Mississippi department.
In October, 1861, he was commissioned major of artillery and was in command of a battalion of twelve guns with the Arkansas
troops in Kentucky
. General Hardee
, in assuming command of the army of Central Kentucky, made him chief of artillery, in which capacity he served at the battle of Shiloh
He it was who massed the artillery against the position occupied by the command of Prentiss
on the memorable first day at Shiloh
, thus becoming an important factor in the capture of that fine body of Union troops.
he held the important post of inspector of artillery.
He was sent with Hindman
; was his chief of artillery, and as such participated in the battle of Prairie Grove
On September 12, 1862, he was promoted to brigadier-general; and in April, 1863, he was ordered to Mobile, Ala.
, as chief of artillery for General Buckner
he commanded a Louisiana brigade and was captured upon the fall of that city.
After being exchanged he served as chief of artillery to Joseph E. Johnston
and gained the hearty commendation of his commander and the esteem of the soldiers.
It was in a great measure due to his skillful management of the artillery that not a gun was lost in the several retreats of the army of Tennessee from Dalton
The works at the Chattahoochee
, which Sherman
declared were the best he had ever seen, were constructed under his supervision.
Upon the removal of Johnston General Hood
his chief of staff.
After the fall of Atlanta
he was relieved at his own request.
He was the author of a pamphlet urging the enlistment of negro troops, which was submitted to the Confederate congress.
The year after the close of the war he was elected to the chair of applied mathematics in the university of Mississippi.
Here he studied for the ministry and was admitted to orders in the Episcopal church, of which he had become a