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[210] member while the Confederate army was in camp at Dalton, April, 1864. He officiated as rector at Waterford, N. Y., Nashville, Tenn., and New Orleans, La.; also filled the chair of metaphysics in the university of the South, at Sewanee, Tenn. He is the author of a work on ‘Infantry Tactics’; while in Atlanta, in 1864, prepared a text-book on ‘Artillery Division Drill,’ and in 1874 he published the ‘Elements of Algebra.’

Major-General Martin L. Smith was another of the many gentlemen of Northern birth who, residing in the South, adopted the sentiments of the people among whom they lived, and with zeal and loyalty supported the Confederate cause. State sovereignty was the political doctrine of the majority of the founders of the Republic, and at times had been asserted by leading men of every political party. Hence it is not surprising that Northern men living in the South were just as prompt to resent any infringement of the rights of their adopted States as were the native-born citizens. It is a well-known fact that many people living in the North believed in the justice of the Southern cause and sympathized with the Southern people in their desperate struggle against overwhelming odds. General Smith was born at New York City, in 1819. He entered the United States military academy in 1838 and was graduated in 1842 as brevet second lieutenant, topographical engineers. He became full second lieutenant in 1843; served during the Mexican war as lieutenant of topographical engineers, and was brevetted first lieutenant May 30, 1848, for meritorious conduct while making surveys in the enemy's country. He was also employed by the government in making surveys for the improvement of Savannah river and for a ship canal across the Florida peninsula. In July, 1856, he was commissioned captain for fourteen years continuous service. During this time he had also been engaged in surveys in the department of Texas. From 1856 to 1861 he was chief engineer of

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