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[211] the Fernandina & Cedar Keys railroad in Florida. Spending most of his mature life among the people of the South, Captain Smith, from his observation and experience of Southern affairs, became fully convinced of the justice of the position taken by the Southern people, and when it became evident that war would soon begin he resigned his commission April 1, 1861, and offered his services to the Confederate States. He was at once commissioned as major in the corps of engineers, May 16, 1861, and accredited to Florida. In this position his services were so well approved that on April 1, 1862, he was made a brigadier-general. He was at first assigned to the army of Northern Virginia as chief of engineers, but was soon after sent to the West. He performed important duties at New Orleans, and on June 26, 1862, was put in charge of the Third district of south Mississippi and east Louisiana. At the head of the engineer corps he planned and constructed the defenses of Vicksburg, where he resisted the naval attack of the summer of 1862; was in chief command in December, 1862, and repulsed the attack of General Sherman; and during the campaign of May, 1863, and the siege of Vicksburg, commanded with great distinction a division composed of the brigades of Shoup, Baldwin and Vaughn. More than any other Confederate general he was identified with the romantic story of the famous stronghold of the great river, the loss of which doomed the cause for which he fought. On November 4, 1862, he had been promoted to major-general. After his exchange he continued to serve the Confederacy as chief of engineers until the close of the war, his last service being at Mobile, Ala. He did not long survive the war, dying at Savannah, Ga., July 29, 1866.

Brigadier-General William S. Walker, of Florida, began his career as midshipman in the United States navy. He participated in the Mexican war as a staff officer with the rank of lieutenant. At the time of the threatened

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