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Chapter 7:

Congressional Reconstruction.

at the South Johnson's efforts prevailed. Although every Northern State had promptly ratified the Constitutional amendment, yet under Presidential pressure, persuasion, and advice, every Southern State rejected it.

When this result became known Grant's predictions were speedily verified. Congress at once determined that the recusant States should return under very different conditions from those at first proposed. The whole territory that had revolted was divided into five military districts, and military rule was declared supreme in each. Commanders were to be appointed, with power and duty to protect all persons at the South, to suppress insurrection and disorder, and to punish all disturbers of the peace and criminals. These commanders were expressly authorized to supersede the civil courts by military tribunals, and all civil or State government whatever was declared provisional and subject to the paramount authority of the United States. This military rule was to continue till the colored population was allowed to vote, and the amendment already rejected should be ratified. Then, and not till then, would the seceded States be admitted to their former position in the Union, and the stern provisions now enacted be annulled. This measure passed both houses of Congress in March, 1867, by large majorities over the President's veto.

Grant was at this time completely in accord with the Legislature. The change in his opinion and in his feeling

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