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[248] into Kansas. Besides his own regiment Colonel Cooper assisted Col. Albert Pike to raise two others. All these forces, under Gen. Albert Pike, participated in the battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas, which was fought on the 7th and 8th of March, 1862. In August, 1862, General Hindman assumed personal command of the Confederate troops in northwestern Arkansas. These consisted of between 9,000 and 10,000 men, about 3,000 of whom were Indians under Colonel Cooper. On September 30th, Col. J. O. Shelby with 2,000 Missouri cavalry, and Colonel Cooper with about 4,000 Indians and mixed troops attacked and defeated Gen. Frederick Salomon near Newtonia. General Schofield, with a strong Federal force, then advanced upon the Confederates, who were obliged to retire before him. Blunt pursued Cooper and defeated him at old Fort Wayne, driving him back into the Indian country. Soon after the defeat of Banks in Louisiana in April, 1864, and that of Steele in Arkansas, General Price determined on another expedition into Missouri. The plan was for the Confederate troops under Cooper (now brigadier-general with commission dating from May 2, 1863), assisted by Maxey and Gano in Indian Territory and western Arkansas, to make demonstrations against Fort Smith and Fort Gibson and the line of communication between these points and Kansas; while another Confederate force was to threaten Little Rock, and Price with about 2,000 men, assisted by such gallant leaders as Fagan, Marmaduke and Shelby, was to march into Missouri. This was the last great military enterprise of the Confederate forces in the Trans-Mississippi. Price gained some important successes at first, but at last such overwhelming force was concentrated against him that he was compelled to retreat with heavy loss. This was the last operation of importance in which General Cooper participated during the war. His command consisted of the following troops: First Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment, Second Choctaw regiment, First and Second Cherokee regiments, and the First

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