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‘ [63] honor and would do well to imitate.’ The service of all these men, and its results, give a measure of the tonic afforded in the Boston of that day. Nay, Emerson himself was directly responsible for much of their strength. ‘To him more than to all other causes together,’ says Lowell, ‘did the young martyrs of our Civil War owe the sustaining strength of moral heroism that is so touching in every record of their lives.’ And when the force thus developed in Boston and elsewhere came to do its perfect work, that work turned out to be the fighting of a gigantic war and the freeing of four millions of slaves; and this in the teeth of every sympathy and desire of all that appeared influential in England. This is what is meant, in American history at least, by ‘performance.’

Indeed, as the War of 1812 has been called, following a suggestion of Franklin's, ‘the second War for Independence,’ so the Civil War might be called in the same sense the third war of the same kind; and the evolution of the American as a type wholly new and distinct from the Englishman, dates largely from that event. We are sometimes misled by a few

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