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[274] nine days, had saved Lynchburg and driven Hunter headlong back to the Valley, and then across it and into the Alleghany mountains. His instructions were to destroy Hunter if possible, and to threaten Maryland and Washington city by an advance northward, if the way should be open. Hunter was now out of reach, and his flight left the road to the Potomac open. Early, determined to seize the opportunity and try to relieve the pressure on Lee by a rapid advance to the Potomac and demonstrations against Washington and Baltimore.

Leaving Salem on June 24, Early marched rapidly to the Potomac, a distance of 212 miles, by July 4th, driving Sigel's forces from Martinsburg and other points, to take refuge on the Maryland Heights. Mr. Pond praises Sigel for remaining there with 6,000 or 8,000 men when he should have joined Wallace's troops advancing from Baltimore. Early finding he could not get at Siegel, marched round him, and on July 9th, entered Frederick; on the same day he attacked Wallace, who, with some garrison troops and Rickett's division, of the Sixth corps, which Grant had sent up, was holding the line of the Monocacy. Wallace had about 6,000 men. He was completely defeated and driven in rout towards Baltimore, with the loss of one-third of his command.

Early now continued to press forward by forced marches and in spite of heat and dust arrived before the defences of Washington during the afternoon of the 11th, while Bradley Johnson with a portion of the cavalry was making a circuit about Baltimore and breaking the railroads from the north. Great panic and consternation was produced in Washington and at the North. President Lincoln called for hundred day volunteers, Hunter was ordered to hasten forward from West Virginia to Harper's Ferry. Grant sent up the other two divisions of the Sixth corps from Petersburg, and the Nineteenth corps arrived in Hampton Roads from the South was also ordered to Washington. Some 20,000 troops of one kind or other were in and about Washington, half of whom, at least, were available for holding the defences until the troops sent by Grant could arrive. Early's forces after their severe march of near 300 miles from Salem were greatly worn, and probably did not number 10,000 men in front of Washington. It was never possible for them to enter the city. The garrison was ample to hold them in check until the arrival of the Sixth corps, which took place a few hours after the Confederate advance had reached the Federal lines. Early had fully and successfully carried out the purpose of his expedition. He had produced a tremendous scare and had caused two corps to be


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