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[458] and 8,844 miles of railroad running for the most part transversely to these rivers diversify and multiply the channels of commerce to such an extent as to promise a speedy development of the vast resources of the new empire. If peace were now established it is not extravagant to suppose that the exports of the Confederate States would, within a year, reach the value of $250,000,000. With a crop of 4,500,000, or, perhaps, even 5,000,000 bales of cotton, most of which would be exported, together with its tobacco, sugar, rice, and naval stores, it would easily send abroad the value just named. But without reference to its undeveloped capacities you may show that they have exhibited strength enough to maintain their independence against any power which has as yet assailed them. The United States commenced this struggle with vast odds in their favor. The military and naval establishments were in their hands; they were also in possession of the prestige and machinery of an old and established government. Many of the forts and strongholds of the Confederate States were in their hands; they had most of the accumulated wealth of the country and nearly all the manufactories of the munitions of war, and even of the necessaries of life. Add to all these advantages the greater population of that Union, and it is easy to see that the self supporting power of the new Confederacy has been exposed to the severest tests and rudest trials. And yet the Confederate armies have conquered in every pitched battle, and that with great odds against them. At Bethel and Manassas, in Virginia, and at Springfield, in Missouri, the United States troops have been routed at great loss and without dispute. The foothold which the United States troops at first acquired within the Confederate States is being rapidly lost, and the United States Government has given manifest evidences of its fears that its seat of government may be wrested from it. This exhibition of strength on the part of the Confederate States, which was so unexpected by its enemies, proves that its morale is greater even than its physical resources for the purposes of this struggle.

Without an army and with a new government, whose necessary establishments were all to be formed in the midst of a civil war, the Confederate States not only manifested their military superiority in the first pitched battles, but have already placed more than two hundred thousand men in the field who are armed, equipped and regularly supplied by the necessary establishments. These sprang into existence almost by the spontaneous efforts of the people, and came into the field faster even than the Government could prepare for

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