The South stands for race integrity.
The instinct of race integrity is the most glorious, as it is the predominant characteristic of the Anglo-Saxon
race, and the sections have it in common.
Fiercely did it sweep the red men before it; swiftly did it brush away the Chinese in the West and North, burning their homes, cutting their throats when they pressed too hard in rivalry, and then breaking treaties to hurl them back across the
to their native shores.
Four million of black men lived in the South
side by side with the white race; and race integrity now incensed the South
Look further southward beyond the confines of our country, and behold how the Latin
races have commingled their blood with the aborigines and negroes, creating mongrel republics and empires, where society is debased and where governments, resting on no clear principles, swing like pendulums between the extremes of tyranny and license.
On the contrary, the American
element at the South
—and I quote a profound Northern writer in saying it—‘guarded itself with the strictest jealousy from any such baleful contaminations.’
But what a picture of horror rose before its eyes as it contemplated the freeing of the slaves.
John C. Calhoun
had drawn that picture in vivid colors which now, recalling the days of carpet-bag
and negro ascendency, seems like a prophet's vision.
‘If I owned the four million of slaves in the South
,’ said Robert Lee
, ‘I would sacrifice all for the Union
And so, indeed, would the Southern
never indicated how such sacrifice could obtain its object, nor was it possible that it could.
It was not the property invested in the slave that stood in the way, for emancipation with compensation for them was then practicable, and was again practicable in early stages of the war, and was indeed offered.
But free the slaves, they would become voters; becoming voters, they would predominate in numbers, and so predominating, what would become of white civilization?
This was the question which prevented emancipation in Virginia
Kill slavery, what will you do with the corpse?
Only silent mystery and awful dread answered that question in 1861, while the clamors of abolition grew louder, and the forces were accumulating strength to force the issue.
In fourteen Northern States the fugitive-slave law had been nullified.
In new territories armed mobs denied access to Southern masters with their slaves.
Negro equality became a text of the hustings, and incendiary appeals to the slaves themselves to murder and burn filled the mails.
The insurrection of Nat. Turner
had given forecast of scenes as horrible as those of the French Revolution
, and the bloody butcheries of San Domingo
seemed like an appalling warning of the drama to be enacted on Southern soil.
The crisis was now hastened by two events.
In 1854 the Supreme Court, in the Dred-Scott
decision, declared the Missouri Compromise
of 1820, which limited the extension of slavery to a certain line of
This was welcome to the South
, but it fired the Northern
In 1859, John Brown
, fresh from the border warfare of Kansas
, suddenly appeared at Harper's Ferry
with a band of misguided men, and, murdering innocent citizens, invoked the insurrection of the slaves.
This solidified and almost frenzied the South
, and in turn the fate he suffered threw oil upon the Northern
Thus fell out of the gathering clouds the first big drops of the bloody storm.
In 1860 Abraham Lincoln
was elected President
, and in his inaugural address he proclaimed his party's creed that the Dred-Scott
decision might be reversed.
The Southern States were already in procession of secession The high tides of revolution were in their flow.