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[378] vast stores of food, clothing, and ammunition. These were utilized to the extent of Jackson's ability, the excess given to the flames. He knew that Pope would resent this poaching upon his preserves, so after applying the torch he moved from the Junction to the neighborhood of the old battle-field, where a year before he had won his title and his spurs. He wanted elbow room, space to manoeuvre, and as he had to call upon Pope, he determined to select his own battle-ground.

The desperate battles of the 28th, 29th and 30th of August testify of Pope's anxiety to retain and Lee's determination to wrest from him this stragetic point.

Forty-nine thousand and seventy-seven worn but superb Confederates, after days of battle, defeated Pope's army, which, with McClellan's reinforcements, numbered 120,000, and forced them back into the works around Washington.

Thus the stragetic value of Manassas, drinking to satiety the blood of brave men, assumed conspicuous prominence in American annals.

In the late spring of 1862 McClellan environed Richmond with an army of 115,000 men. His immense works are monuments to his genius as an engineer. Of the points fortified by him Cold Harbor was the key to his right.

When the signal gun from the left of the Confederate fortifications announced the assault upon McClellan's lines, the brunt of the attack was upon his right. Fierce assaults followed and some of the strongholds yielded, but Cold Harbor, naturally strong and intensified by splendid works, resisted fiercely. Southern blood flowed like water, but as long as this point held out, McClellan maintained his right in tact.

Jackson sent imperative order to storm the works, and though fourteen heavy field guns and three lines of battles hurled shot, shell and bullets upon them, the gallant Hood with his splendid Texans finally carried the fort by storm, and doubled McClellan's right back upon his centre.

Successively, Mechanicsville, Ellerson's Mills, Cold Harbor, Gaines' Mill, Frazer's Farm, Savage Station, and White Oak Swamp were torn from McClellan's group, and these names blazoned in martial glory upon the star crossed flag, while McClellan's beaten army sought protection under the guns of the Federal fleet in James river.

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