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[48] survival, as a vital factor in modern politics, of the much-denounced Machiavellian ‘reason of State.’ Without the need of further search, the distinguished lecturer, who not long since delivered at Oxford, England, so interesting and suggestive a discourse on the Florentine statesman of sinister memory, might have found in this transaction alone, abundant illustration of the power it still retains to obscure the ‘awful difference’ between ‘right and wrong.’ Stronger evidence could hardly be required that the author, or at least the most prominent literary exponent, of the doctrine in question ‘is not a vanishing type, but a constant and contemporary influence,’ though it is probable enough that those who, on this occasion, acted so completely in his spirit, had never read a line of his works, and were but poorly acquainted with the events of his life.

The bill for the admission of West Virginia finally passed the House (December 10th, 1862), by a vote of 96 to 55, the Democrats voting solidly in opposition, as did also a number of prominent Republicans, including Mr. Dawes, with a majority of his colleagues from Massachusetts; Mr. Conkling, of New York; Mr. Thomas, of Maryland, and Mr. Conway, of Kansas. The act thus passed required an amendment to the Constitution of West Virginia on the subject of slavery, as a condition precedent to admission. This condition was complied with, and the Constitution as amended was ratified at an election in which only a very small vote was cast. But the act of mutilation was not even yet fully consummated. In the bill, as passed, admitting the State, and prescribing its boundaries, the counties of Berkeley and Jefferson were not included; nor were they in the clause of the Constitution of West Virginia itself, enumerating the counties of which it was to consist. It was, however, provided, in the event of certain other counties (with which we are not here concerned), being included in the new State, that then the district composed of the counties of Berkeley, Jefferson and Frederick, should also become a part of it, if a majority of the votes therein were cast in favor of the adoption of the Constitution at an election to be held on the first Thursday in April, 1863.

On that day there was no election at all held in these three counties. But it was further provided in the schedule to the Constitution that ‘if from any cause the said election be not held in and for any of the said counties at the time named, the same may be held at such subsequent time or times as the commissioners hereby appointed may approve, if so done as not to delay the submission of the result to the Legislature for its action.’ No such vote was taken prior to the

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