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[160] through at least the opening years of the twentieth. Mr. Grady remarks that having brought the record of events up to the formation of the new government, ‘we need to be somewhat familiar with the different interests of the different sections of the Union, which could be benefitted or injured by congressional legislation. We begin with New England's shipping interests, because they were among the first to ask for special favors, and to sow the seeds of that sectional conflict which produced the war between the northern and southern States.’ Shipbuilding had, at an early date, become the leading industry of the seaboard towns of New England, and the numerous vessels belonging to Massachusetts placed her, in relation to commerce, at the head of the colonies. For about a century and a half New England enjoyed almost a monopoly of the carrying trade of the colonies. This business was disturbed by the Revolution; but after the war was over, commerce resumed its importance, and, stimulated by preferences accorded to them because of bitter memories of British aggressions, New England's shipping interests enjoyed, it would not be far from the truth to declare, almost as many monopolistic privileges as were afterwards conferred on them by acts of Congress. But, however that may be, the builders and owners of ships in New England were unwilling to trust entirely to a mere sentimental protection. They desired that their privileges should have the sanction of federal law, and their desire was gratified. Upon the application of their representatives, ‘an absolute monopoly of the coastwise trade was conferred on ships built in the United States, with the privilege of adjusting freight and passenger rates to suit the owners; a discriminating tonnage tax was imposed on all foreign ships engaged in carrying goods to or from these States; a discriminating tariff tax was imposed on all articles imported into these States in foreign ships; ship builders in the United States were granted an absolute monopoly of the “home market” for ships, and New England's cod fishermen were quartered on the taxpayers of all the States.’ Largely in consequence of these protective measures, the shippers of the United States, as far back as 1810, controlled a greater part of the world's carrying trade than either Holland or England; but already the victims of paternalism had begun to ask what had become of the justice promised in the constitution. At the time of the adoption of the constitution, and for several decades afterwards, agriculture was the employment of the great majority of the people of this country, and diversification of industry was confined almost exclusively to the north. In the northern States

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