Virginia. 3. Colonel, April 24, 1861. Commanding (in 1861) Thirty-second Virginia Regiment, Army of the Peninsula, afterwards (1862) A. A. G. Department of East Tennessee, and in 1863 A. A. G. Western Department.
Virginia. Appointed Virginia. 6 Brigadier-General, October 21, 1861. Commanding in 1861 Fifth Brigade, First Corps, Army of Potomac. Died December 26, 1861.
Tennessee. Appointed Tennessee. 20. Colonel, July 31, 1862. Commanding Sixty-third Tennessee Infantry, B. R. Johnson's Division. In 1863 was in Preston's Division, Longstreet's Corps, Army of Tennessee; in 1864 in BrigadierGen-eral Johnson's Brigade, B. R. Johnson's Division, in Beauregard's Corps, Army of Northern Virginia.
Kentucky. Appointed Kentucky. 26. Major-General, August 15, 1861. Commanding District of East Tennessee, December, 1861; commanding Confederate forces at battle of Mill Springs, Ky., January 19, 1862. Resigned October 23, 1862. In 1864 commanding Reserve (as Colonel, Confederate States Army) in Department of East Tennessee.
Maryland. Appointed Maryland. 33. Lieutenant-Colonel, October 1, 1861. Commanding Fifty-fifth Virginia Infantry; in 1862 Captain and A. A. G. to BrigadierGen-eral J. J. Archer.
 North Carolina. Appointed North Carolina. 35. Brigadier-General, July 8, 1861. Commanding Southern Department coast defences of North Carolina. Resigned September 8, 1862, but subsequently served as A. and I. General of State of North Carolina, with rank of Major-General.
Kentucky. Appointed Kentucky. 42. Brigadier-General, October 30. 1861. Detached command at Princeton, 1861-‘62; commanding district, Abingdon, Va., May, 1862. Resigned June 17, 1863. Member of Confederate States Congress.