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 The bark of the dogwood and swamp willow was mixed with tobacco for smoking. Watermelon juice was made into syrup, and the rind into preserves. The seed of the watermelon and those of the gourd were used as a diuretic. Gourd rind was used as mould for buttons. The ladies of St. John's Parish, S. C., used prickly pear for hardening tallow in candle making, one pound to four pounds of tallow taking the place of wax. The hand-leaved violet formed an emollient application. Red maple made an astringent wash. In the process of dyeing it was found that maple and sweet gum barks with copperas made purple; maple, red oak and copperas, dove color; maple and walnut, brown; sweet gum and copperas, nearly black; peach tree leaves and alum gave yellow; the artichoke and black oak bark also gave yellow; sassafras root with copperas, a drab; smooth sumac, root and bark and berries, gave black; black oak bark with a basis of alum gave a bright yellow; with oxide of tin, tints from pale yellow to bright orange; with oxide of iron, a drab; black oak galls in a solution of vitriol made purple, which as it grows stronger, passed into a black; alum and alder, yellow; hickory bark and copperas, olive; hickory bark and alum, green; white oak and alum, brown; walnut root and leaves, alone, black; blacksmith's dust was frequently used in place of copperas. Buckeye lotion was used for gangrenous ulcers, and by some for the toothache. Among the substitutes for coffee, at home and in camp, the following were a part: Rye, parched okra seeds, cotton seeds, parched sweet potatoes, parched corn hominy, peanuts. It was stated in printed articles ‘that half the coffee sold in New York and Boston the past twenty-five years has been composed chiefly of rye.’ Cotton-seed decoction was used for inflammation in mucous passages. The roots of the cotton plant were employed in asthma, and by the negroes as an abortant. Soap was made from cotton seed by treating them direct with lye. Among the substitutes for tea were Ceanothus Americanus, known as red root, or New Jersey tea, and holly leaves and blackberry and raspberry leaves and rose leaves. The Amelia azedarach (China berry) furnished some valuable uses. The berries were employed in making whiskey; the bark of the root used as an anthelmintic. The leaves were said to prevent
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