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[337] Who knows what goadings in their sterner way
     O'er jagged ice, relieved by granite gray,
Blew round the men of Massachusetts Bay?

What hate of heresy the east-wind woke?
     What hints of pitiless power and terror spoke
In waves that on their iron coast-line broke?

Be it as it may: within the Land of Penn
     The sectary yielded to the citizen,
And peaceful dwelt the many-creeded men.

Peace brooded over all. No trumpet stung
     The air to madness, and no steeple flung
Alarums down from bells at midnight rung.

The land slept well. The Indian from his face
     Washed all his war-paint off, and in the place
Of battle-marches sped the peaceful chase,

Or wrought for wages at the white man's side,—
     Giving to kindness what his native pride
And lazy freedom to all else denied.

And well the curious scholar loved the old
     Traditions that his swarthy neighbors told
By wigwam-fires when nights were growing cold,

Discerned the fact round which their fancy drew
     Its dreams, and held their childish faith more true
To God and man than half the creeds he knew.1

1 In one of his letters addressed to German friends, Pastorius says: ‘These wild men, who never in their life heard Christ's teachings about temperance and contentment, herein far surpass the Christians. They live far more contented and unconcerned for the morrow. They do not overreach in trade. They know nothing of our everlasting pomp and stylishness. They neither curse nor swear, are temperate in food and drink, and if any of them get drunk, the mouth-Christians are at fault, who, for the sake of accursed lucre, sell them strong drink.’

Again he wrote in 1698 to his father that he finds the Indians reasonable people, willing to accept good teaching and manners, evincing an inward piety toward God, and more eager, in fact, to understand things divine than many among you who in the pulpit teach Christ in word, but by ungodly life deny him.

‘It is evident,’ says Professor Seidensticker, ‘Pastorius holds up the Indian as Nature's unspoiled child to the eyes of the “ European Babel,” somewhat after the same manner in which Tacitus used the barbarian Germani to shame his degenerate countrymen.’

As believers in the universality of the Saving Light, the outlook of early Friends upon the heathen was a very cheerful and hopeful one. God was as near to them as to Jew or Anglo-Saxon; as accessible at Timbuctoo as at Rome or Geneva. Not the letter of Scripture, but the spirit which dictated it, was of saving efficacy. Robert Barclay is nowhere more powerful than in his argument for the salvation of the heathen, who live according to their light, without knowing even the name of Christ. William Penn thought Socrates as good a Christian as Richard Baxter. Early Fathers of the Church, as Origen and Justin Martyr, held broader views on this point than modern Evangelicals. Even Augustine, from whom Calvin borrowed his theology, admits that he has no controversy with the admirable philosophers Plato and Plotinus. ‘Nor do I think,’ he says in De CIV. Dei, lib. XVIII., cap. 47, ‘that the Jews dare affirm that none belonged unto God but the Israelites.’

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