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 arm of the service on McClellan's staff. Fort Jackson, so named after the defender of New Orleans, was situated opposite, near the site of the old Fort Bourbon. The department of war at Washington had naturally received detailed plans of all these works, and Barnard had furnished a memoir on the one he had reconstructed, and which his comrades were ordered to capture. The Confederate authorities considered themselves invulnerable on this side; consequently, they did not trouble themselves about protecting New Orleans, except against an enemy coming down the Mississippi. It was at Columbus, Island Number10 and Fort Pillow that they had intended to defend the capital of the Gulf of Mexico. When General Lovell succeeded Twiggs in the command of Louisiana in October, 1861, he was absolutely without resources. The regiments raised in that part of the country had gone to fight elsewhere; the arsenals were empty, the forts had scarcely any armament, and the war-vessels in process of construction on the river were yet unfinished; money, men and materials of war were alike wanting. The armies of Virginia and Kentucky had swallowed up everything. During the winter Lovell had, by assiduous activity, remedied this evil to a considerable extent. A double enceinte, well fortified, protected the city on the land side. Two powder-manufactories were kept at work day and night. The garrison numbered, besides the militia, eight thousand men, all well-trained troops. But the reverses sustained by their armies in the North-west were a subject of increasing alarm to the Richmond authorities. In the month of March Lovell had been obliged to send five thousand men to Columbus, and little by little all those of his soldiers who had enlisted in the service of the Confederacy were taken from him. There were only left to him three thousand volunteers raised by the governor of Louisiana, engaged for only three months, badly equipped and undrilled. He had also been requested to furnish cannon and ammunition. In short, conflicts of authority and the want of money delayed the completion of the two vessels upon which he had relied for defending the Mississippi against the Federal fleets. These vessels were the Louisiana and the Mississippi, each registering one thousand five hundred tons, strongly plated, armed with a beak, supplied with a powerful engine, and
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