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[178] were giving their lives by thousands in defence of the Union, has any other political crime, to use the technical expression, been expiated by the blood of the guilty. Munford was the same man who, on the 27th of April, hauled down the Federal flag hoisted by some sailors of the Pensacola over the Mint, before New Orleans had been regularly occupied. It was a senseless act, for it might have drawn the whole fire of the Federal squadron upon an innocent city; and if one of Farragut's sailors had seen Munford drag the national flag through the mud, he would have done right to shoot him on the spot. It was, however, an act of hostility, and not of treason. He had not, therefore, been at first arrested for this deed; but as he had become the leader of the most turbulent portion of the rabble, and the instigator of all the outrages committed against the Federals, he was prosecuted at the end of six weeks for this offence. Having been tried and found guilty by a military tribunal, he was hanged on the 7th of June, and thus became a martyr in the eyes of all partisans of the South.

To the persistent hostility of the inhabitants of New Orleans, the Federals replied by treating that town more and more as a conquered city; the despotic authority of the provost-marshal weighed most heavily upon the people. A large number of property-owners being in the Confederate service, their houses were seized; those who, without leaving the city, made themselves conspicuous by their sympathies for the cause of the South, were subjected to all sorts of vexations. Speculation was soon brought into play to render these unfortunate measures still more odious; the laws of confiscation, to which we shall refer again, were applied in a manner unexampled in the history of this war. The property seized was sold at a nominal price to adventurers who were protected by the general-in-chief. It is even asserted that his own brother was the principal agent of all the shameful transactions which, at that time, usurped the place of legitimate commerce. This commerce, in fact, from the time that the supply of cotton collected in the city previous to its occupation was exhausted, was narrowed down to supplying food to the inhabitants, who could find nothing within the contracted space which the war had left them to enjoy, not even the provisions necessary for their

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