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[179] daily consumption, and the result was that there were absolutely no exports. Hence a vast deal of distress, which the financial crisis still further increased; the loans contracted by the governments of Richmond and Louisiana since the secession could not be recognized by the Federals, and the bonds which represented them soon became almost valueless. Necessity, however, did not allow Butler to include in his proscription the Confederate paper money, which was the only circulating medium at that time; and by an anomaly as strange as it was unavoidable, this symbol of the rebellion was for a long time tolerated and received in the Federal coffers.

Butler was not wholly responsible for these misfortunes, and we must add, in justice to him, after having enumerated his arbitrary acts, that during his administration he exhibited, in some respects, not only energy, but considerable intelligence. The quiet of the city was never disturbed, while the sanitary regulations were carried into effect with a degree of method before unknown in that great city. Unemployed negroes were set to work, at the expense of the Federal government, in cleaning sinks and in draining the swamps nearest to the city, so that, to the great astonishment of the inhabitants, who expected their old enemy, the yellow fever, to pay them a visit in summer and ravage the Federal garrison, this terrible scourge did not appear, and, as a sort of compensation for other evils, spared New Orleans during the whole period of the war.

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