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[265] of artillery, no cavalry, and no wagons for the transportation of rations and ammunition. Porter's soldiers had with them but forty rounds of cartridges for each soldier, and Heintzelman's only four. The marches and sea-voyages had increased the sicklist, and it had been found necessary to leave detachments of troops to guard the depots at Aquia Creek, so that these five divisions, which on the 20th of July numbered thirty-seven thousand men, had not more than twenty or twenty-two thousand when they joined Pope.

Let us now return to this general, and to the theatre of war on the Rapidan. After the battle of Cedar Mountain, Jackson, on his return to Gordonsville, had asked his chief for new reinforcements. Lee was not yet willing to believe that the Federals had entirely abandoned the menacing position of Harrison's Landing; but knowing that Burnside was at Fredericksburg, and that numerous vessels were ploughing the James, he very soon understood that the enemy was about to transfer the theatre of active operations to the Rapidan, and determined to forestall him, so as to render it impossible for him to resume the offensive on the James. In fighting Pope with all his forces he was fully certain of drawing all the Federal troops also in that direction, and of thus freeing Richmond from the danger which had threatened that capital since the day when McClellan first made his appearance on the Chickahominy. Accordingly, on the 13th of August, he responded to Jackson's appeal by putting Longstreet in motion with his whole corps and Hood's division; Anderson's strong division was to follow immediately. Stuart was brought back to Gordonsville from the neighborhood of Fredericksburg, where he was watching the lower Rappahannock; D. H. Hill was left to guard Richmond with his corps, the recruits and depots. We have said that Lee's army was then from ninety to ninety-five thousand strong. Out of this number he took with him about seventy-five thousand; these forces were divided into two army corps. Jackson retained under his command the three divisions with which he had fought at Cedar Mountain, comprising fourteen brigades and fourteen batteries, from thirty to thirty-five thousand men in all. Longstreet's corps was formed of the four divisions under Hood, Anderson, Walker and McLaws, numbering

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