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[266] about thirty-five thousand men. Stuart's cavalry and the reserve artillery, with the various special corps, completed the figures we have just mentioned. On the 15th, even before the Federals had entirely evacuated Harrison's Landing, Longstreet's heads of column arrived at Gordonsville, and the day following, precisely at the same hour that McClellan was proceeding toward Williamsburg, Jackson was proceeding once more in the direction of Cedar Mountain. Before crossing the Rapidan he waited for the remainder of Lee's army to join him. Finally, on the 20th of August, he crossed the river at Somerville Ford, while Longstreet was performing the same operation lower down, at Raccoon Ford. They expected to surprise Pope in the positions which he had occupied since the battle of Cedar Mountain.

But the Federal general, most fortunately for him, had been informed by a letter of Lee, intercepted on the 16th, of the movements and strength of the Confederate army. Notwithstanding the arrival of Reno, who had joined him on the 14th with his two small divisions of four thousand men each, he found himself with only fifty thousand combatants under his command. Convinced of the numerical superiority of his opponents, Pope had retired from the borders of the Rapidan to those of the Rappahannock; he there opened the new campaign by a retreat, which, although a necessary manoeuvre in his situation, nevertheless promptly belied the promises contained in his general orders. The movement of the Federals, commenced on the morning of the 18th, was completed on the evening of the 19th; on the left, Reno occupied Kelly's Ford; Banks, Rappahannock Station; Mc-Dowell, Rappahannock Ford; and Siegel formed the extreme right of the army, higher up the river. The cavalry was not to fall back until closely pressed by the enemy. It was before this line of the Rappahannock that Lee presented himself on the 21st with his whole army.

It is necessary for us to point out, in this place, the configuration of the ground upon which the two belligerents were about to contend. The chain of the Bull Run Mountains, the most eastern of the Alleghany ridges, bounded on the north-east near Leesburg by the Potomac, extends to the south-west in a straight line to the borders of the upper Rappahannock, where it terminates

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