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[275] the forty-five kilometres they had marched in a single day. He only gave them a few hours' rest, started again at sunrise, and finding Thoroughfare Gap unoccupied took posession of it early in the morning. During this time, Stuart and his cavalry, who had all along covered his right flank, crossed the mountains south of the defile through paths which any one else would have deemed impassable, and continued thus to mask his movements.

Longstreet, who was charged to detain Pope on the Rappahannock, had employed the day in making demonstrations along that part of the river where, the day before, he had relieved Jackson's divisions. Pope, seeing the waters falling, imagined that Lee was preparing to take advantage of the fact to attack him in front, and on the evening of the 24th he ordered his army to make a new movement. His intention this time was to range his forces along the railway line from the Rappahannock to Warrenton Junction, so as to face the north-west, believing that by this movement he would be able to menace Lee's flank and cover his own communications with Aquia Creek. But orders too frequently modified are almost invariably transmitted wrong and badly executed. The movement of the army on the 25th was made without concert; and Siegel, without suspecting the truth, remained alone at Waterloo Bridge during the whole day. He only retired in the evening because he discovered his isolated position just in time, and joined McDowell at Warrenton by a night march. Reno had encamped five kilometres east of this village, and Banks had retired to Fayetteville. In short, while the remainder of Heintzelman's corps was reaching Warrenton Junction by rail, that of Porter, coming from Aquia Creek, struck this line at Bealeton station, farther south.

Nevertheless, in spite of the precautions taken by Jackson, he was unable to escape the vigilant eye of the signal corps of the Federal army. One of the officers of this corps, which rendered such essential service during the war, Colonel Clark, had passed the whole morning of the 25th hidden in the woods, where, at the peril of his life, he had watched the march of Jackson's principal column, and counted thirty-six regiments of infantry, with cavalry and artillery, ascending the right bank of Hedgeman's River. Pope had been informed of this movement about noon; but thinking

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