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[294] short of rations. Never had the difficulties of the American war been more strictly manifested.

His want of success, the failure of provisions, which would have paralyzed him in case of a victory, the concentration of the whole Confederate army, which had been made manifest by the battle between King and Hood—everything indicated to Pope the necessity of proceeding to Centreville, and waiting there in a strong position for the reinforcements which he could not rely upon at Manassas. He resolved, however, to renew the struggle on the morning of the 30th, upon the battle-field of the preceding day. Deceived by the statements of prisoners and the reports of his pickets, he was once more led to believe that the enemy was falling back upon Thoroughfare Gap; and being no longer able to turn his right, he desired to take advantage of this supposed retreat to attack his left. Both parties, however, were too much fatigued to renew the struggle at an early hour. When daylight came, they had to concentrate, to reorganize, to pick up and care for the wounded. The Federals had from six to eight thousand men hours de combat. A still larger number had disappeared within a few days, some having been lost in the nightmarches or used up in those of the day, others having run away in the midst of the battle. Consequently, the number of combatants was greatly reduced, and did not exceed forty-five thousand men; the cavalry was unfit for service. It took Pope the whole morning to reconnoitre his positions; the task of re-forming his line and preparing for his new attack occupied him till noon.

The battle-field on which the two belligerents stood fronting each other was divided by the valley of Young's Branch, the general direction of which is from west to east. The main road from Centreville, as straight as a Roman causeway, followed this stream, sometimes on one bank, sometimes on the other; it was intersected at right angles by the road from Sudeley Springs to Manassas Junction. Another road, bearing more to the west, left Sudeley to connect with the main road at Groveton. On the morning of the 30th, this road formed nearly the line of demarkation between the two armies. That of Lee, whose left under Hill was drawn up in rear of Sudeley, still occupied the salient point of the embankment which was so fiercely disputed the day

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