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[301] roads; it was necessary, above all, to give the exhausted men the rest which was indispensable to them. It seemed besides that Pope, having found Franklin at Centreville, and expecting Sumner to arrive on the 31st, could have maintained himself there for an indefinite period. He would soon have, in fact, nearly sixtythree thousand men under his command. The old Confederate works had been turned and completed under McClellan's instructions a few months before. They were occupied by Porter at the north, by Franklin around the village itself, and by Siegel at the south. Heintzelman and Reno were placed in second line, while Banks was ordered to proceed much farther to the south, so as to watch the lower crossings of Bull Run. On his arrival Sumner was to cover the right by extending his line as far as Chantilly, while McDowell formed the reserve on the road to Fairfax Courthouse.

The Federal cavalry had no longer a single horse in good condition, and therefore could not scout for the army. Sumner only reached the position at Centreville very late on the 31st, and was consequently unable to push as far as Chantilly. The result was that Jackson quietly posted himself in that village unknown to Pope, who only discovered the movement which seriously menaced his right on the morning of September 1st. Master of Chantilly and a fine road along which his columns could deploy, the Confederate general was nearer to Fairfax than the Federals established at Centreville, and was about to place himself once more between them and Washington. Pope perceived that he had not a moment to lose to ward off this danger; he evacuated Centreville in all haste to cover the point menaced by throwing himself across the two roads of Little River and Warrenton. Hooker fell back from Centreville to Fairfax, rallied all the troops he could find there, and again followed the Little River road in the direction of Chantilly, passing through Germantown. McDowell and Franklin took position in the rear, on the left, at the angle of the two roads. Reno, leaving the Warrenton road before Fairfax, proceeded to draw up his corps on the left of Hooker's division. That of Kearny, which, with the latter, composed Heintzelman's corps, followed close upon Reno, and was so placed as to prolong his left. Still farther to the left the corps of

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