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[311] land! my Maryland!—and all responded in chorus. The silent Jackson himself was carried away by the general enthusiasm. He saw at last the project he had cherished since the beginning of the war about to be realized. Casting their eyes farther on, his soldiers and himself pictured to themselves the rich fields of Pennsylvania, of which they already believed themselves masters. Short-lived illusions! The next day, instead of an ovation, he met with the coldest reception in the small town of Frederick. Situated on the eastern slope of the Blue Ridge, Frederick is on the boundary of lower Maryland. Not far from it the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad crosses the Monocacy, a tributary of the Potomac. Jackson occupied the right bank of this river with his three divisions, so as to cover the march of the army against any attack which might come from Washington or Baltimore. On the 8th the whole army was drawn up on the left bank of the Potomac; Lee had come up in turn, and established his headquarters at Frederick. He issued a proclamation explaining to the people of Maryland his object in invading a State which he desired to treat as friendly, although not yet legally a part of the Confederacy, in the hope of obtaining through this appeal to their sympathies the assistance, both in men and materiel, of which he stood so greatly in need. In this manly and simple style of address, peculiar to himself, which was in strong contrast with the violent language of Mr. Davis, he presented himself as a liberator, but declared himself unwilling to coerce in any way the will of the sovereign State whose soil he trod. The people of Maryland took him literally at his word, and did not stir. The families of the emigrants alone manifested a noisy sympathy. If the majority were indifferent, the Union party was numerous and did not conceal its sentiments, while the few secessionists, not particularly delighted with the visit of the starving liberators, and anticipating their speedy departure, did not wish to compromise themselves by demonstrations in their favor. The Confederates, astonished at this reception, naturally accused their Maryland brethren of cowardice and treason.

Lee, however, did not waste time. In order to menace Pennsylvania while moving away from Washington, he had to rest his line upon the valley of the Shenandoah, that route flanked by

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